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No. 41 June 1, 1953 



FISH AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT 

REPORT 



PROVINCE OF ONTARIO 
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 
Division of Fish and Wildlife 



Hon. Clare E. Mapledoram F. A. MacDougall 

Minister Deputy Minister 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 
NO. 41 JUNE 1, 1953 



Index to Fish and Wildlife Management Reports, July, 1951 
to April, 195$. Numbers 1 to 40. 



(THESE REPORTS ARE FOR INTRA -DEPARTMENTAL 
INFORMATION AND NOT FOR PUBLICATION) 



Page 



Vertebrate Animal Life Observed In the Fort Severn Area, 

August, 1957. - by D. W. Simkin 15 

Winter Trip From Weenusk To Hawley Lake, February, 1955. 

- by J. A. Macfie 22 

Duck Nesting Baskets. - by G. F. Boyer 27 

Results of the Duck Banding Programme At the Toronto 

Islands, 1954 and 1955. - by A. de Vos 29 

Results of Duck Banding Operations At the Federal 

Waterfowl Sanctuary, Guelph, 1955-56. - by A. T. Cringan 33 

Check-list of the Fishes Taken in the Attawapiskat River 

and Adjoining James Bay, 1957. - by R. A. Ryder 40 

Report on August Section of Pacific Salmon Project at 
Attawapiskat. - by H. G. Cumming 42 

The Case For Fish Hatcheries in Ontario. 

- by G. C. Armstrong 47 

Developments In the Mechanics of Hatchery Operations. 

- by R. A. Weir 51 



- 1 - 

INDEX TO 
FISH AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT REPORTS 
JULY, 1951 TO APRIL, 1958 

NUMBERS 1 TO 40 



BIRDS 

Annotated List of Birds Seen on the Asheweig River, 1950, C. A. Elsey, 

No. 23, June 1, 1955. 
Annotated List of Birds Seen at Kasabonika Lake, May 27th to June 

5th, 1953, A, T. Cringan, No. 24, Aug. 1, 1955. 
Birds, Mammals and Fish of Extreme Northwestern Ontario, Notes on, 

J. A. Macfie, No. 16, Apr. 1, 1954. 
Birds, Mammals and Fishes of Extreme Northwestern Ontario, additional 

Notes on, J. A. Macfie, No. 40, Apr. 1, 1953. 
Birds Observed At Big Island, Lake of the Woods, Jan. 22 - Feb. 8, 

1953, A. T. Cringan, No. 31, Oct. 1, 1956. 
Botulism Research at Normandale Bird Farm, S. W. Mound, No. 26, Dec. 

1, 1955. 
Brant in Tweed District, 1953, H. G. Lumsden, No. 19, Oct. 1, 1954. 
Brant Migration, Summary of Fall, Thomas W. Barry, No. 35, June 1, 

1957. 
Canada Goose Kills By the Indians of Northern Ontario, An Evaluation 

Of, Harold C. Hanson and Campbell Currie, No. 32, Dec. 1, 

1956. 
Check of Duck Hunters in Rondeau Park, Oct. 2, 1954, R« A. McLaren, 

No. 22, Apr. 1, 1955. 
Duck Banding At Toronto Island, 1954, W. J. Douglas Stephen, No. 20, 

Dec. 1, 1954. 
Duck Banding, Toronto Island, 1955, W. J. D. Stephen and John Goddard, 

No. 26, Dec. 1, 1955. 
Duck Habitat Improvement Survey, Preliminary Report, J. K, Shields, 

No. 28, Apr. 1, 1956. 
Duck Hunting In the Lake Erie District, L. J. Stock, No. 33, Feb. 1, 

1957. 
Duck and Grouse Brood Counts, From the Districts of Chapleau, 

Geraldton, Sioux Lookout, Fort Frances and Port Arthur, 

A. deVos, No. 10, Mar. 1, 1953. 
Ducks Caught in Muskrat Traps, Quinte District, H. G. Lumsden, No. 2, 

Nov. 1, 1951. 
Duck Census and Brood Count, 1957, Kenora District, V. Macins, No. 38, 

Dec. 1, 1957. 
Exotic Birds, C. H. D. Clarke, No. 17, June 1, 1954. 
Experiment in Scaring Starlings by Sound at Buffalo, New York, A. H. 

Berst, No. 20, Dec. 1, 1954. 
Further Report on the Scaring of Starlings By Sound at Buffalo, New 

York, John F. Hagerty, No. 22, Apr. 1, 1955. 
Ground Cover and Winter Feeding, H. P. Nicholson, No. 18, Aug. 1, 

1954. 
Grouse Stocking on Cockburn Island, Harold McQuarrie, No. 4, June 1, 

1952. 



- 2 - 

Grouse on Manitoulin Island, H. G. Lumsden, No. 7, Oct. 1, 1952. 
Hungarian Partridges, H G. Lumsden, No. 5, Aug. 1, 1952. 
Hungarian Shoot, 1951, N. D. Patrick, No. 3, Apr. 1, 1952. 
Hungarian Partridge Report, District of Rideau, N, D. Patrick, No. 13, 

Sept. 1, 1953. 
Hungarian Partridges in the New Liskeard Farming District, February, 

1955, Survey Of, W. L. Sleeman, No. 24, Aug. 1, 1955. 
Hybrid Goose In Prince Edward County, H. G. Lumsden, No. 17, June 1, 

1954. 
James Bay Report, 1957, G. F. Boyer, No. 40, Apr. 1, 1953. 
Luther Marsh, Ontario, An Investigation Of, J. H. Day, No. 23, Apr. 

1, 1956. 
Luther Marsh, 1954, J. F. Gage and W„ H. Cantelon, No. 22, Apr. 1, 

1955. 
Luther Marsh, Waterfowl Census for October 1st, 1955, W. H. Cantelon, 

No. 27, Feb. 1, 1956. 
Luther Marsh Game Bag Census, October 6, 1956, J. F. Gage, No. 32, 

Dec. 1, 1956. 
Luther Marsh Game Bag Census Report, October 5, 1957, J. F. Gage, 

No. 3^, Dec, 1, 1957. 
Mid-winter Waterfowl Inventory, 1954, H. G. Lumsden, No. 20, Dec. 1, 

1954. 
Mid-winter Waterfowl Inventory, 1955, H. G. Lumsden, No. 23, June 1, 

1955. 
Midwinter Waterfowl Inventory For Ontario, 1957, George M. Stirrett, 

No. 35, June 1, 1957. 
Midwinter Inventory for Ontario, 195$, G. F. Boyer, No. 40, Apr. 1, 

1953. 
Mourning Dove Road Counts, L. J. Stock, No. 32, Dec. 1, 1956. 
Notes on the Occurrence of Blue and Snow Geese in the Sioux Lookout 

District, A. T. Cringan, No. 19, Oct. 1, 1954. 
Pelee Island Pheasant Shoot - 1952, C. 0. Bartlett, No. 9, Jan. 1, 

1953. 
Pelee Island Pheasant Shoots of 1953 and 1954, Some Statistics And 

Comments On the, C. 0. Bartlett, No. 22, Apr. 1, 1955. 
Pelee Island Pheasant Shoot - 1955, Statistics On, L. J. Stock, No. 

27, Feb. 1, 1956. 
Pelee Island Pheasant Shoot - 1956, Statistics and Comments, L. J. 

Stock, No. 34, Apr. 1, 1957. 
Pelee Island Pheasant Shoot - 1957, Statistics and Comments, L. J. 

Stock, No. 39, Feb. 1, 1953. 
Pelee Island Pheasants, Investigations of Parasitism, J. K. McGregor, 

No. 27, Feb. 1, 1956. 
Pelee Island Pheasant Disease Findings, J. K. McGregor, No. 35, 

June 1, 1957. 
Pheasant Council, Report of Inaugural Meeting of Midwest, Madelia, 

Minnesota, January 14-15, 1953, No. 40, Apr. 1, 1953. 
Pheasant Densities, Land Use and Its Effect On, van Nostrand, F. C, 

No. 33, Dec. 1, 1957. 
Pheasant, North Norwich Experiment Report for 1949, J. F. Gage, 

No. 12, July, 1953. 
Pheasant Shoot for the Township of North Norwich, County of Oxford 

for 1952, J. F. Gage, No. 13, Sept. 1, 1953. 



- 3 - 

Pheasant Shoot Report, Township of North Norwich, County of Oxford, 

for 1953, W. H. Cantelon, No. 17, June 1, 1954. 
Pheasant Shoot, North Norwich, Oxford County for 1954, W. H. Cantelon, 

No. 23, June 1, 1955. 
Pheasant Shoot for the Township of North Norwich, County of Oxford, 

1955, W. H. Cantelon, No. 29, June 1, 1956. 
Pheasant Season Report, 1956, Lake Huron District, W. H. Cantelon, 

No. 33, Feb. 1, 1957. 
Pheasant Harvest - 1957, Lake Huron District, R. E. Mason, No. 40, 

Apr. 1, 1953. 
Pheasant Report, Lake Simcoe District, 1950, H. R. McCrimmon, No. 19, 

Oct. 1, 1954. 
Pheasant Report - Lake Simcoe District, 1954, H. R. McCrimmon, No. 23, 

June 1, 1955. 
Pheasant Season, 1955, Lake Simcoe District, J. S. Dorland, No. 28, 

Apr. 1, 195Do 
Pheasant Season, 1957, In the Regulated Townships of the Lake Simcoe 

District, J. S, Dorland, No. 39, Feb. 1, 1953. 
Pheasant Stocking in New York State, a Proposal to Increase the 

Effectiveness of, Ben Bradley, No„ 22, Apr. 1, 1955* 
Pheasant Survey, Plympton Township, 1956, A. R. Streib, No. 39, 

Feb. 1, 1953. 
Quail Trapping Operations in Southern Ontario, February - March, 

195o, Ralph Smith, Charles Brown and Don Schierbaum, 

No. 29, June 1, 1956. 
Ruffed Grouse, Age and Sex, 1951, H. G. Lumsden, No. 3, Apr, 1, 1952. 
Ruffed Grouse Brood Count, H. G, Lumsden, No. 11, May 1, 1953. 
Ruffed Grouse, Age, Sex and Brood Counts of, H. G. Lumsden, No. 15, 

Feb. 1, 1954. 
Ruffed Grouse Brood Counts in Tweed District, 1954, H. G. Lumsden, 

No. 22, Apr. 1, 1955. 
Ruffed Grouse Brood Counts, 1955, Tweed District, P. A. Thompson, 

No. 25, Oct. 1, 1955. 
Ruffed Grouse Sex and Age Ratios, Tweed District, 1955, P. A. 

Thompson, No. 28, Apr. 1, 1956. 
Ruffed Grouse Age and Sex Swastika District, 1956, R. C. Johanson, 

No. 34, Apr, 1, 1957. 
Ruffed Grouse Bag Census, 1956, Parry Sound Forest District, F. A. 

Walden, No. 35, June 1, 1957. 
Ruffed Grouse Age and Sex Bagged During the 1957 Season in Sault Ste. 

Marie District, P. Kwaterowsky, No. 39, Feb. 1, 1958, 
Ruffed Grouse Age and Sex Report, Kenora District, 1957, G. C, 

Myers, No. 39, Feb. 1, 1958. 
Ruffed and Spruce Grouse Fall Sex and Age Ratios in Sioux Lookout 

District, 1957, D. W. Simkin, No. 39, Feb. 1, 1958* 
Ruffed Grouse and Spruce Grouse in Chapleau District , '1957, V. 

Crichton, No. 39, Feb. 1, 1958. 
Ruffed Grouse, Weight Variations of Juvenal, Port Arthur District - 

1957, E, J. Swift, No. 39, Feb. 1, 1953. 
Ruffed Grouse, Significance of Mean Weight Variations in Weekly 

Samples of Juvenal, Thunder Bay District, 1957. R. A. 

Ryder, No. 39, Feb. 1, 1958. 
Sharptail and Ruffed Grouse in the Fort Frances Area, John Miller, 

No. 39, Feb. 1, 1958. 
Sharptails, Management of, Fort Frances District, C. a. Elsey, No. 39, 

Feb. 1, 1953. 



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Snow Geese- at Winisk, 1955, V. Crichton, No. 23, Apr. 1, 1956. 
Songbird Mortality Following Soil Treatment With Aldrin, L. J. 

Stock and Jacob Kalff, No. 3 5, June 1, 1957. 
Water Birds Killed at Niagara, H. G. Lurasden, No. 4, June 1, 1952. 
Waterfowl Accidentally Taken in Muskrat Traps, N. D. Patrick, No. 16, 

Apr. 1, 1954. 
Waterfowl Taken in Muskrat Traps, Rideau District, 1954, N. D. 

Patrick, No. 21, Feb. 1, 1955. 
Waterfowl Caught in Muskrat Traps, Kemptville District, 1955-56, 

G. C. Myers & J. B. Dawson, No. 32, Dec. 1, 1956. 
Waterfowl Caught in Muskrat Traps, Kemptville District, 1956-57, 

D. J. Gawley, No. 39, Feb. 1, 1953. 
Waterfowl Band Recovery Program, Sioux Lookout District, Oct. 25/ 

51 - Feb. 13/53, A. T. Cringan, No. 16, Apr. 1, 1954. 
Waterfowl Band Recovery Program, Sioux Lookout District, Third 

Progress Report, February 14, 1953 - March 23, 1954, 

A. T. Cringan, No. 20, Dec. 1, 1954. 
Waterfowl Band Recovery Program, Sioux Lookout District, Progress 

Report, March 24/54 - July 31/55, A. T. Cringan, No. 26, 

Dec. 1, 1955. 
Waterfowl Bag, 1954, Species Composition of Western Region, A. T. 

Cringan, No. 25, Oct. 1, 1955. 
Waterfowl Banding - Gogama - Grassy River Area, Alex Dzubin, No. 27, 

Feb. 1, 1956 u 
Waterfowl Banding - Gogama District, 1956, W. R. Catton, No. 33, 

Feb. 1, 1957. 
Waterfowl Banding, Gogama District, 1957, R. Catton, No. 39, No. 1, 

1953. 
Waterfowl Breeding Ground Survey, Quinte District, 1951, H. G. 

Lumsden, No. 2, Nov. 1, 1951. 
Waterfowl Breeding Stock in Quinte District, 1952, H. G. Lumsden, 

No. 11, May 1, 1953. 
V/aterfowl Breeding Ground Survey, Tweed District, 1953, H. G. 

Lumsden, No. 17, June 1, 1954. 
Waterfowl Bag Checks Tweed District, 1953, H. G. Lumsden, No. 18, 

Aug. 1, 1954. 
Waterfowl Breeding Ground Survey, Tweed District, 1954, H. G. 

Lumsden, No. 21, Feb. 1, 1955. 
V/aterfowl Hunters* Bag Checks, Tweed District, 1954, H. G. Lumsden, 

No. 22, Apr. 1, 1955. 
Waterfowl Hunters* Bag Checks, Tweed District, 1955, P. A. Thompson, 

No. 26, Dec. 1, 1955. 
Waterfowl Breeding Ground Survey, Tweed District, 1956, W. W. Bittle, 

No. 31, Oct. 1, 1956. 
Waterfowl Brood Production of Luther Marsh, Ontario, 1956, Investi- 
gation of, H. Gray Merriam & D. I. Gillespie, No. 33, 

Feb. 1, 1957. 
Waterfowl Conditions in the Mississippi Flyway, Winter of 1957-53, 

Summary of, A. S. Hawkins, No. 40, Apr. 1, 1953. 
Waterfowl Notes from Whitefish Bay, Lake of the Woods, J. Carswell, 

No. 24, Aug. 1, 1955. 
Waterfowl Notes from Lake of the Woods, H. E. Deedo & H. G. Lumsden 

No. 25, Oct. 1, 1955. 
V/aterfowl Observations in the Cochrane District of Northern Ontario, 

C. 0. Bartlett, No. 3, Apr. 1, 1952. 



- 5 - 

Waterfowl Observations in the Perrault Falls Area, Sioux Lookout 

District, 1953-54, A. T. Cringan, No. 20, Dec. 1, 1954. 
Waterfowl Observations, Perrault Falls Area, Sioux Lookout District, 

Summer, 1954, A. T. Cringan, W. J. D. Stephens & J. 

Elbrink, No, 21, Feb. 1, 1955. 
Waterfowl Shooting Around a Small Sanctuary, D. N. Neill, No, 32, 

Dec. 1, 1956. 
Waterfowl Survey of Northwestern Ontario, 1950, Lester W. Gray, 

No. 32, Dec. 1, 1956. 
Waterfowl Surveys, Helicopter Use on, H. G. Lumsden, No. 21, Feb. 1, 

1955. 
Wild Turkey Release in Lambton County, Report on, C. 0. Bartlett, 

No. 10, Mar. 1, 1953. 
Willow Ptarmigan in Northwestern Ontario, Notes on the Abundance of, 

A. T. Cringan, No. 7, Oct., 1952. 
Willow Ptarmigan, on the Abundance of, in Northwestern Ontario, 

1952-53, A, T. Cringan, No. 24, ^ug. 1, 1955. 
Woodcock Notes from Manitoulin Island, 1952, H. G. Lumsden, No. 12, 

July 1, 1953- 
Woodcock Census Report, May, 1955, Sault Ste. Marie District, M. W. 

I« Smith, No, 31, Oct. 1, 1956. 

CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT 

Experimental Wetlands Appraisal in Southern Ontario, H. Gray 

Merriam, No, 32, Dec. 1, 1956. 
Farm Ponds, A. H. Berst, & J. D. Roseborough, No. 29, June 1, 1956. 
Forest Wildlife Management, Clyde P. Patton, No. 34, Apr. 1, 1957. 
Game Laws, C. H. D Clarke, No. IS, Aug. 1, 1954. 
Observations of Small Marsh Development in Upper New York State 

(with comments and criticisms by E. L. Cheatum et al) , 

J. B, Dawson, No. 24, Aug. 1, 1955. 
Report on Field Trip to Marsh Development Areas in Northern New York 

State, November 21-23, 1955, H. R. McCrimmon, No. 23, 

Apr. 1, 1956. 
Report on the Seventeenth Midwest Wildlife Conference, December 

12-14, 1955, Lafayette, Indiana, K. H. Loftus & J. K. 

Reynolds, No. 27, Feb. 1, 1956. 
Some Thoughts on Game Laws, C. H. D. Clarke, No. 26, Dec. 1, 1955. 
Wetland Management Program for Wildlife in Southern Ontario, Antoon. 

de Vos, No. 34, Apr. 1, 1957. 
Wildlife Management Plans in County Forests, J. F. Gage, No. 25, 

Oct., 1955. 

FORESTRY AND BOTANY 

Aquatic Weeds in Fishing Waters, Methods of Control for, H. R. 

McCrimmon, No. 9, Jan. 1, 1953. 
Blueberry Cropping Experiment in Port Arthur District, R. Boultbee, 

No. 23, Apr. 1, 1956. 
English Water Grass in Tweed District, H. G. Lumsden, No. 15, Feb. 1, 

1954. 
An Evaluation of Common Aquatic Plants as Food for Waterfowl, 

Muskrats, Beaver and Moose, J. K. Reynolds, No. 23, June 

1, 1955. 
Harvesting of Wild Rice, Fort Frances Forest Area, H. E. Pearson, 

No. 27, Feb. 1, 1956. 



- 6 - 

Kelvin Island Survey, 1948, P. A. Addison, No. 5, Aug. 1, 1952. 
Preliminary Check-list of Trees, Shrubs and Woody Vines Native to 

Rondeau Provincial Park, R. D. Ussher, No. 29, June 1, 

1956. 

FISH AND FISHERIES 

Additional Age and Growth Rates of Ontario Fish - Bluegill ( Lepom is 
macrochirus ) and Black Crappie ( Pomoxis nigro-maculatus ) , 
0. E. Devitt, No. 24, Aug. 1, 1955. 

Additional Age and Growth Rates of Ontario Fish - Common White Sucker 
( Catostomus commersonnii ) , 0. E. Bevitt, No. 16, Apr. 1, 

1954. 
Additional Age and Growth Rates of Ontario Fish - Lake Trout 

( Salvelinus namaycush ) t 0. E. Devitt, No. 18, Aug. 1, 1954. 
Additional Age and Growth of Ontario Fish - Lake Whitefish ( Coregonus 

clupeaformis ) , 0. E. Devitt, No. 20, Dec. 1, 1954. 
Additional Age and Growth Rates of Ontario Fish - Largemouth Bass 

( Micropterus salmoides ), 0. E. Devitt, No. 14, Nov.,1, 1953. 
Additional Age and Growth Rates of Ontario Fish - Pumpkinseed 

(Sunfish) ( Lepomis gibbosus ) and Rock Bass ( Ambloplites 

rupestris ) , 0. E. Devitt, No. 15, Feb. 1, 1954. 
Additional Age and Growth Rates of Ontario Fish - Rainbow Trout 

( Salmo gairdnerii ) and Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) , 0. E. 

Devitt, No. 19, Oct. 1, 1954. 
Additional Age and Growth Rates of Ontario Fish - Smallmouth Bass 

( Micropterus dolomieui ) , 0. E. Devitt, No. 13, Sept. 1, 1953. 
Additional Age and Growth Rates of Ontario Fish - Speckled Trout 

( Salvelinus fontinalis ) , 0. E. Devitt, No. 17, June 1, 1954. 
Additional Age and Growth Records of Ontario Fish - Yellow Perch 

( Perca flavescens ) , 0. E. Devitt, No. 11, May 1, 1953. 
Age and Growth Rates of Ontario Fish - Yellow Pikeperch, or Pickerel 

( Stizostedion vitreum ) t 0. E. Devitt, No. 12, July 1, 1953. 
Age and Growth Rates of Ontario Northern Pike ( Esox lucius ) , 0. E. 

Devitt, No. 10, Mar. 1, 1953. 
Age and Growth Records of Ontario Sturgeon ( Acipenser fulvescens ) , 

0. E. Devitt, No. 34, Apr. 1, 1957. 
Age and Size of Ontario Maskinonge ( Esox masquinongy ) , 0. E. Devitt, 

No. 9, Jan. 1, 1953. 
The Angler and Fisheries Management, H. R. McCrimmon, No. 23, June 1, 

1955. 
Angling in Fanshawe Lake, Report of, J. D. Roseborough, No. 38, 

Dec. 1, 1957. 
Bass Lake Fishery Survey, 1955, H. R. McCrimmon, No. 28, Apr. 1, 1956. 
Biological Survey of Compass Lake, District of Parry Sound, 1950, 

F. A. Walden, No. 22, Apr. 1, 1955. 
Biological Surve]^ of Boundary Lake, Conger Township, Parry Sound 

District, F. A. Walden, No. 26, Dec. 1, 1955. 
Biological Survey of Whitefish Bay, Lake of the Woods, P. F. Chidley, 

No. 16, Apr. 1, 1954. 
Biological Survey of Engineer's Lake, Kenora District, P. F. Chidley, 

No. 20, Dec. 1, 1954. 
Biological Survey of Hilly Lake, Kenora District, P. F. Chidley, No. 

21, Feb. 1, 1955. 



- 7 - 

Carp Introduction Into Ontario, Anonymous, No. 32, Dec. 1, 1956. 
Carp on the North Shore of Lake Superior, Port Arthur and Geraldton 

Districts, R. A. Ryder, No. 31, Oct., 1956. 
Carp Removal Programme, Lake Scugog, H. R. McCrimmon, No. 31, Oct. 1, 

1956. 
Creel Census and Its Future Role in Fisheries Management of the 

Western Region, J. M. Fraser, No. 3$, Dec. 1, 1957. 
Creel Census and Lake Survey - Fanshawe Lake, M. G, Johnson, No. 3$, 

Dec. 1, 1957. 
Creel Census Conducted at the Mississagi and White River Travel 

Permit Gates, K. H. Loftus, No. 17, June 1, 1954. 
Creel Census Conducted During the Year 1952 in the North Bay Forestry 

District, Initial Report on the General, R. E. Whitfield, 

No. 19, Oct. 1, 1954. 
Creel Census - Kenora District, 1955, J. M. Fraser, No. 37, Oct. 1, 

1957. 
Creel Census of the Black Sturgeon Area, 1956, R. A. Ryder, No. 39, 

Feb. 1, 1953, 
Creel Census of the Black Sturgeon Area, 1957, C. A. Rettie, No. 40, 

Apr. 1, 195S„ 
Creel Census Study on Speckled Trout, J. F. Gage, No. 10, Mar. 1, 1953. 
Creel Census Report for Eugenia Hydro Pond, 1952, J. F. Gage, No. 22, 

Apr. 1, 1955. 
Creel Census Report ~ 1953 Sault Ste. Marie District, Kenneth H. 

Loftus, No. 20, Dec. 1, 1954. 
Creel Census, Sault Ste. Marie, 1955, K. H. Loftus, No. 31, Oct. 1, 

1956. 
Creel Census 1956, Sault Ste c Marie District, K. H. Loftus, No. 3#, 

Dec. 1, 1957. 
Coarse Fish Removal at Spring Valley Mill Pond, Waterloo County, 

J. F. Gage, No. 34, Apr. 1, 1957. 
Coarse Fish Removal, Heart Lake, 1957, Murray G. Johnson, No. 40, 

Apr. 1, 1953, 
Commercial Fisheries Management, A. H. Berst, No. 26, Dec. 1, 1955. 
Commercial Fishing in Ontario, G, C. Armstrong, No. 21, Feb..l, 1955. 
Comparison of the Rate of Growth Exhibited by the Progeny of Hatchery 

Reared Speckled Trout and Lake Nipigon Wild Trout Obtained 

at the Dorian Rearing Station, 1950, G. C. Armstrong, 

No. 24, Aug. 1, 1955. 
Determination by Units of the Number and General Location of Tourist 

Outfitters 9 Camps in Zone #2 on the Basis of Fish Produc- 
tion, K. H. Loftus, No. 13, Aug. 1, 1954. 
The Evolution of a Natural Trout Lake Into a Warm- water Lake, R. A. 

Ryder, No. 29, June 1, 1956. 
Fishflake Feeding Experiment With Speckled Trout, 1951, A. H. Berst, 

No. 11, May 1, 1953. 
Fish Poisoning, Kelly Lake, King, Ontario, M. M. Telford, No. 16, 

Apr. 1, 1954. 
Fish Tagging Studies in Whitefish Bay, Lake of the Woods in 1954 and 

1955, J. M. Fraser, No. 32, Dec. 1, 1956. 
Game Fish, Management of, H. R, McCrimmon, No. 25, Oct. 1, 1955. 
Hatchery Experiment With Ouananiche Eggs, North Bay Hatchery, 

Redbridge Ontario, 1949, R. E. Whitfield, No. 10, Mar. 1, 

1953. 



- 3 - 

Hybrids of Salvelinus, F. E. J. Fry, No. 34, Apr. 1, 1957. 
Increased Whitefish Production Through Commercial Fishing During the 

Whitefish Spawning Period in Four Waters of the Kenora 

District, J. M. Fraser, No. 28, Apr. 1, 1956. 
Lake Trout Studies Conducted in the Port Arthur District, 1951* 

Progress Report on Marked, G. C. Armstrong, No. 13, Sept. 1 

1953 c 
Minnow Situation in the Kenora District, J. M. Fraser, No. 39, Feb. 1, 

1953. 

Nogies Creek Fish Sanctuary, J. C. Weir, No. 27, Feb. 1, 1956. 
Pickerel Destruction at Healey Falls, 1952, Investigation of, E. D. 

Lapworth, No. 11, May 1, 1953. 
Pickerel Project, Severn River, Washago, 1950-1951, H. R. McCrimmon, 

No. 15, Feb. 1, 1954. 
Pickerel Spawning in Melville Creek and in Consecon Lake, Investi- 
gation of, J. M. Fraser, No. 19, Oct. 1, 1954. 
Pickerel and Northern Pike Tagging Studies in the Winnipeg River, 

District of Kenora in 1954 and 1955, J. M. Fraser, No. 35, 

June 1, 1957c 
Pickerel ( Stizostedion v. vitreum ) (Mit chill) Movements in Lake 

Superior and the Nipigon River System, R. A. Ryder, No. 35, 

June 1, 1957. 
Pickerel Population Study in Lake Superior and the Nipigon River 

System, 1956, R. A. Ryder, No. 37, Oct. 1, 1957. 
Pike in Lake St. Clair and Western Lake Erie, 194$, K. H. Loftus, 

No. 23, June 1, 1955. 
Ponds in Lake Simcoe District With Dams Exceeding Three Feet in Hei- 
ght, Jan. 1, 1952, H. R. McCrimmon, No. IB, Aug. 1, 1954. 
Preliminary Report on Free Fall Planting of Fish from Aircraft, 

North Bay Forestry District, 1952 - 1953, R. E. Whitfield, 

No. 14, Nov. 1, 1953. 
Report on the Waters of the Rob Roy Trout Club, J. F. Gage, No. 25, 

Oct. 1, 1955. 
Rondeau Bay Fishery Survey, May to October, 1950, A. H. Berst, No. 

33, Feb. 1, 1957. 
Sea Lamprey ( Petromyzon marinus ), Sea Lamprey Project, Thessalon, 

1948, Investigation of the, R. E, Whitfield, No. 12, July 

1, 1953. 
Smallmouth Bass, Preliminary Report on Spawning of, in Long Point 

Bay, Lake Erie, 1953, A. H. Berst, No. 15, Feb. 1, 1954. 
Smelt Fishing Experiment, Lake Erie, A. H. Berst, No. 17, June 1, 

1954. 
The Transfer of Sublegal Maskinonge from Marl and Wigwam Lakes to 

Rainy Lake, District of Fort Frances, J. M. Fraser, No. 

29, June I, 1956. 
Warm Water Fishes in Fort Frances District, 1957, C. A. Elsey, 

No. 39, Feb. 1, 1958. 
Water Conditions to Provide Lake Salmon for Angling, H. R. McCrimmon, 

No. 12, July 1, 1953. 
Winter Fishing Pressure on Lake Trout, Port Arthur District, 1957, 

R. a. Ryder, No. 40, Apr. 1, 1958. 
Winter Search for Ouananiche, Athelstane and Cliff Lakes, Port 

Arthur District, R. A. Ryder, No. 32, Dec. 1, 1956. 



- 9 - 

MAMMALS 

Annual Changes in Numbers of the Western Region Deer Herd, R. 

Boultbee, No. 36, Aug. 1, 1957. 
Bears in Ontario, Notes on Black, H. G. Lumsden, No. 29, June 1, 1956. 
Bear Kill Spring of 1955, Sault Ste. Marie District, M, W. I. Smith, 

No. 29, June 1, 1956. 
Beaver Catch, Sex Ratio and Size-Class Analysis for the 1952-53 

Trapping Season in the White River Forest District, C. W. 

Douglas, No. 21, Feb. 1, 1955. 
Beaver Census, 1956, Kenora District, P. A. Thompson, No. 35? June 

1, 1957. 
Beaver Census, 1957, Preliminary Analysis of Reports from Seven 

Districts on Aerial, R. Standfield, No. 39, Feb. 1, 1953. 
Beaver Inventory, Anonymous, No. 7, Oct. 1, 1952. 
Beaver Season, Sioux Lookout District, Analysis of the 1950-51, A. T. 

Cringan, No. 2, Nov. 1, 1951. 
Beaver Survey, Geraldton District, Report on Results of the 1956 

Aerial, H. G. Gumming, No. 35, June 1, 1957. 
Beaver, the Sexing of, Arnold H. Kennedy, No. 8, November, 1952. 
Caribou on the Islands of Lake Nipigon, C. H. D. Clarke, (included 

in Kelvin Island Survey, 194$), P. A. Addison, No. 5, 

Aug., 1952. 
Caribou on the Slate Islands, Helicopter Survey of, H. G. Cumming, 

No. 25, Oct. 1, 1955. 
Computation of Current Potential Rates of Reproduction of White- 
tailed Deer from Checking Station Data, A. T, Cringan, 

No. 25, Oct. 1, 1955. 
Concluding Studies on the Moose Rut, Q(. Backstrom] No. 14, Nov. 1, 

1953. 
Cottontail Rabbit Kill in the Niagara Peninsula, A. R. Muma, No. 29, 

June 1, 1956. 
Cougars in the White River District, Reports of, C. W. Douglas, 

No. 17, June, 1954. 
Deer Aging Tests, Results of, R. L. Hepburn, No. 37, Oct. 1, 1957. 
Deer and Elk Inventories, North Bay District, 1955, C. 0. Bartlett, 

No. 30, Aug. 1, 1956. 
Deer Data Collection in Rideau District, 1951-1953, N. D. Patrick, 

No. 19, Oct. 1, 1954. 
Deer Hunt Report, Pembroke District, 1956, K. K. Irizawa, No. 36, 

Aug. 1, 1957. 
Deer In Lake Simcoe District, J. S. Dorland, No. 18, Aug. 1, 1954. 
Deer in Tweed District, Management Plan for, H. G. Lumsden, No. 19, 

Oct. 1, 1954. 
Deer, 1952, Tweed District, H. G. Lumsden, No. 14, Nov. 1, 1953. 
Deer, 1954, Tweed District, P. A. Thompson, No. 23, June 1, 1955. 
Deer, 1955, Tweed District, P. a. Thompson, No. 34, Apr. 1, 1957. 
Deer Inventory, District of Sault Ste. Marie, 1955, M. W. I. Smith, 

No. 3C, Aug. 1, 1956. 
Deer Inventory, Sioux Lookout District, 1955, J. A. Macfie, No. 30, 

Aug. 1, 1956. 
Deer Kill by Causes Other Than Legal Hunting, H. G. Lumsden, No. 29, 

June 1, 1956. 



- 10 - 

Deer Kill Curves from Ontario, Some Distortions In, H. G. Lumsden, 

No. 30, Aug. 1, 1956. 
Deer Mortality in the Lake Erie District, 1956, (compiled by) L. J. 

Stock, No. 34, Apr. 1, 1957. 
Deer Mortality in North Bay District, F. E. Sider, No. 4, June 1, 

1952. 
Deer Winter Mortality, Kenora District, 1955-56, P. A. Thompson, 

No. 33, Feb. 1, 1957. 
Deer Mortality Survey, Kenora District, Winter of 1957, V. Macins, 

No. 36, Aug. 1, 1957. 
Deer Mortality Survey, 1956, Sioux Lookout District, E. H. Stone, 

No. 33, Feb. 1, 1957. 
Deer Hunting From Licenced Camps in the Sioux Lookout District, 

Report on 1951 Non-Resident, A. T. Cringan, No. 3, Apr. 1, 

1952. 
Deer Notes From the Schooner Lake Area, H. G. Lumsden, No. 4, June 1, 

1952. 
Deer in the Peterborough County Crown Game Preserve, Overbrowsing by, 

A. H. Lawrie, No. 5, Aug. 1, 1952. 
Deer Population, Gogama District, J. M. Taylor & D. G. Waldriff, 

No. 12, July 1, 1953. 
Deer Range in Tweed District, 1955, P. A. Thompson, No. 30, Aug. 1, 

1956. 
Deer Report, 1956, Kemptville District, Jc B. Dawson, No. 36, Aug. 1, 

1957c 
Deer Sample Size for Western Region, R. Boultbee, No, 36, Aug. 1, 

1957. 
Deer Season in North Bay District, 1955, C. 0. Bartlett, No. 30, 

Aug. 1, 1956. 
Deer Season in Pembroke District, 1954, K. K. Irizawa, No. 24, Aug. 1, 

1955o 
Deer Season in Pembroke Forest District, 1956, K. K. Irizawa, No. 36, 

Aug. 1, 1957. 
Deer Survey, Sault Ste. Marie District, 1955, M. W. I. Smith, No. 30, 

Aug. 1, 1956. 
Deer Season in the Sault Ste. Marie Forest District, 1956, M. W. I. 

Smith, C. L. Perrie & M. T. Watson, No. 36, Aug. 1, 1957. 
Elliott-Haynes Report, 1956, Elliott-Haynes, No. 30, Aug. 1, 1956. 
Experimental Traplines Report, Season 1951-52, A. de Vos, No. 6, 

Sept. 1, 1952. 
Experimental Traplines Report, Season 1952-53, J« K. Reynolds, No. 14, 

Nov., 1953. 
Experimental Traplines Report, Season of 1953-54, J. K. Reynolds, 

No. 23, June 1, 1955. 
Experimental Trapline, 1955-56, Chapleau District Summary of, F„ 

Johnston, No. 33, Feb. 1, 1957. 
Fisher and Marten Fluctuation In Sex Ratios During the 1952-1953 

Trapping Season, White River District, C. W. Douglas, 

No. 14, Nov. 1, 1953. 
Fisher Litter Size in the Patricias, 1955, H. G. Lumsden, No. 26, 

Dec. 1, 1955. 
Fisher Live Trapping in Algonquin Park, Winter of 1957, M. G. Loucks, 

No. 40, Apr. 1, 195». 
Foxes Bountied During the Years 1951-2-3 in Rideau District, Ralph 

Peck, No. 29, June 1, 1956. 



- 11 - 

Game Inventory of the Caribou Crown Game Preserve, R. H. Trotter, 

No. 37, Oct. 1, 1957. 
Have We Too Many Moose? (Sweden), T. Wennmark, No. 16, Apr. 1, 1954. 
Initial Plan for Deer Habitat Manipulation in Coniferous and Mixed- 
wood Swamps of South Canonto Township, Frontenac County, 

A. T. Cringan, No. 38, Dec. 1, 1957. 
Live Marten Trapping 1950-1954, Summary of, V. Crichton, No. 24, Aug. 

1, 1955. 
Manitoulin Archery Season in 1956, W. A. Morris, No. 36, Aug. 1, 

1957. 
Marten and Fisher Live Trapping Algonquin Park, 1957, P. W. Swanson, 

No. 39, Feb. 1, 1958. 
Marten and Fisher Production in the Sioux Lookout Wildlife Management 

District, A. T. Cringan, No. 23, June 1, 1955. 
Marten, Directions for Live Trapping (revised), V. Crichton, No. 35, 

June 1, 1957. 
Marten, Fisher, Mink and Otter in Ontario, Sex Ratio of - Progress 

Report for 1953-54, J. K. Reynolds, No. 22, Apr. 1, 1955. 
Marten Live Trapping, Chapleau District, 1956, V. Crichton, No. 33, 

Feb. 1, 1957. 
Marten Research, Chapleau District, May 11 - May 31, 1957, V. 

Crichton, No. 38, Dec, 1, 1957. 
Marten Trapping Project, White River District, Report on a Winter, 

E. A, Pozzo, Noc 32, Dec, 1, 1956, 
Mink Catch, Temporal Distribution of 1951-52, A. T. Cringan, No. 9, 

Jan. 1, 1953. 
Mink Sex Ratios 1951-52, A. T. Cringan, No. 9, Jan. 1, 1953. 
Moose Aerial Census - Watcomb - Tannin Area, 1952, A. T. Cringan, 

No. 15, Feb. 1, 1954. 
Moose Aerial Survey, Sioux Lookout District, March, 1957, R. H. 

Trotter, No. 37, Oct. 1, 1957. 
Moose Census and Kill in the Chapleau District, 1953, V. Crichton, 

No. 19, Oct. 1, 1954. 
Moose Helicopter Survey on Big Island, 1955, Kenora Report on, R. 

Simkoe, No, 31, Oct. 1, 1956, 
Moose Hunting Regulations in the Western Region, 1930-1953, A. T. 

Cringan, No. 21, Feb. 1, 1955. 
Moose in Tweed District, 1954, Status of, H. G, Lumsden, No. 24, 

Aug. 1, 1955. 
Moose Inventory, Port Arthur District, 1957, R. a. Ryder, No. 37, 

Oct. 1, 1957. 
Moose Investigations Experimental, Using a Helicopter Carried Out in 

the Cedar River Area, Sioux Lookout District, August, 

1954, A, T. Cringan & E. H. Stone, No. 27, Feb. 1, 1956. 
Moose Investigations in the Perrault Falls Area During the Summer 

of 1954, A. T. Cringan, W. J. D. Stephen & J. Elbrink, 

No. 25, Oct. 1, 1955. 
Moose Investigations Using a Helicopter, Experimental, A. T. Cringan, 

No. 19, Oct. 1, 1954. 
Moose Kill Census in Port Arthur Forest District, 1948, A. de Vos, 

No. 1, July, 1951. 
Moose Kill in Sweden, 1951, Anonymous, No. 7, Oct. 1, 1952. 



' 



- 12 - 

Moose Movement Studies, 1952, Preliminary, A. de Vos & R. L. Pearson 

No. 24, Aug. 1, 1955. 
Moose Season in the District of Sault Ste. Marie, 1956, A. J. 

Herridge (compiled by), No. 37, Oct. 1, 1957. 
Moose Season Report for Geraldton District, 1955, H. G. Cumming, 

No, 31, Oct, 1, 1956. 
Moose Season Report, North Bay District, 1955, C. 0. Bartlett, No. 

31, Oct. 1, 1956. 
Moose Season Report, Sioux Lookout District, 1955, J. A. Macfie, 

No. 31, Oct. 1, 1956. 
Moose Season, the 1953 Non-resident, A. T. Cringan, No. IS, Aug. 1, 

1954. 
Mortality in the Western Region Deer Herd, R. Boultbee, Mo. 30, Aug. 

1, 1956. 
Muskrat Aging and Sexing, Lake Simcoe District, Fall of 1956, J. S. 

Dorland, No. 33, Feb. 1, 1957. 
Muskrat Impoundments in the Region of Hearst, Ontario, June 1-6, 

1953, Investigation of, R. D. Harris, No. 19, Oct. 1, 1954. 
Muskrats, Lake Erie District, Season Summary for 1957, A. R. Streib & 

L. J. Stock, No., 3S, Dec. 1, 1957. 
Muskrat Studies, Tweed District, 1955, P. A. Thompson, No. 27, Feb. 1, 

1956. 
Notes on the North Shore of Lake Superior from Marathon to Gargantua 

Harbour and on Michipicoten Island, H. G. Cumming, No. 21, 

Feb. 1, 1955. 
Notes on Trip to St. Ignace Island, July 16-21, 1956, H. G. Cumming, 

No. 33, Feb. 1, 1957* 
Polar Bear Inventory, 1955-1956, Patricia Central District, J. A. 

Macfie, No. 29, June 1, 1956. 
Porcupine, ( Erethizon dorsatum ) , Observations on the, A. T. Cringan 

No, 2, Nov. 1, 1951. 
Possible Effects of Forest Fire on Big Game in the Sioux Lookout 

Forest Protection District, A. T. Cringan, No. 36, Aug. 1, 

1957. 
Raccoon Hunting in Southern Ontario, H. G. Lumsden, No. 25, Oct. 1, 

1955. 

Recuperative Powers of Western Region Deer Herd, R. Boultbee, No. 30, 

Aug. 1, 1956. 
Red Fox Population in Geraldton District, H. G. Cumming, No. 29, 

June 1, 1956. 
Report of Capture of Marked Deer, Parry Sound District, F. A. Walden 

& W. L. MacKinnon, No. 27, Feb. 1, 1956. 
Seasonal Effects and the Western Region Deer Herd, R. Boultbee, 

No. 36, Aug. 1, 1957. 
Sex Ratios of the Western Region Deer Herd, R. Boultbee, No. 40, 

Apr. 1, 195^. 
Slate Islands, Report of a Trip to, July 13-17, 1953, A. de Vos, 

No. 31, Oct. 1, 1956. 
Slate Islands Aerial Survey, Jan. 26th, 1954, C. E. Perrie, No. 31, 

Oct. 1, 1956. 
Slate Islands Investigation, Sept. 12-17, 1955, C. W. Douglas, No. 31, 

Oct. 1, 1956. 
Slate Islands, Report on 1956 Trip to, H, G. Cumming, No. 32, Dec. 1, 

1956. 



- 13 - 

Small Mammal Survey, 1956, (compiled by) H. G. Lumsden, No, 3 5, 

June 1, 1957. 
Small Mammal Trapping, Puslinch Township, Wellington County, A. 

de Vos, No. 26, Dec e 1, 1955. 
Some Public Relations Problems in Deer Management, H. G. Lumsden, 

No, 23, June 1, 1955* 
Structure of the Deer Herd in Western Region, R. Boultbee, No. 30, 

Aug* 1, 1956c 
Summary of Fur Returns bv Ontario Game Management Districts, 1951-52. 

No. 11, May l,"l953. 
Summaries of Fur Returns by Ontario Game Management Districts for 

the Years 1952-53 and 1953-54? No. 21, Feb. 1, 1955. 
Summary of Fur Returns by Ontario Game Management Districts for the 

Year 1954-55, No, 26, Dec. 1, 1955. 
Summary of Fur Returns by Ontario Game Management Districts, 1955-56, 

No. 32, Dec. 1, 1956. 
Summary of Fur Returns by Ontario Game Management Districts, 1956-57, 

No. 38, Dec. 1, 1957. 
Survival Rates, Apparent and Actual of the Western Region Deer Herd, 

„ „No, 40, Apr. 1, 1953. R- Boultbee. 
Till Algjagare - For the Moosehunter, S„ & L. Liljefors, No. 19, 

„ „0ct. 1, 1954. 
Till Algjagare - For the Moosehunter, S. & L. Liljefors, No. 20, 

Dec. 1, 1954. 
Timber Wolves Killed in 1943 and 1949, An Analysis of the Sex Ratio 

of, A. de Vos, No. 25, Oct. 1, 1955. 
Value of Furs Produced in the Patricia West and Patricia Central 

Wildlife Management Districts, A. T. Cringan, No. 27, 

Feb. 1, 1956. 
Variability in Deer Age-Measurements, Western Region 1951 to 1956 

Inclusive, R. Boultbee, No. 36, Aug. 1, 1957. 
Variation in Survival Rate of the Western Deer Herd, R. Boultbee, 

No. 34, Apr. 1, 1957. 
Western Region Deer Check Station, R. Boultbee, No. 30, Aug. 1, 

1956. 
Wildlife Rabies, C. H. D. Clarke, No. 31, Oct. 1, 1956. 
Winter Live Trapping, Chapleau Game Preserve, 1957, V. Crichton, 

No. 34, Apr. 1, 1957. 
The Winter of 1955/56 and the Western Region Deer Herd, R. Boultbee, 

No. 36, Aug. 1, 1957. 
White-tailed Deer Crash, E. C. Cross, No. 11, May 1, 1953. 
Wolves in Tweed District, 1954, Status of, H. G. Lumsden, No. 25, 

Oct. 1, 1955. 

GENERAL. REPORTS 

Ontario Sale of Licences for 1956, compiled by W. Mulholland, No. 37, 

Oct. 1, 1957. 
Private Shooting Grounds - Paradise Lost or Paradise Regained?, 

C. H. D, Clarke, No. 34, Apr. 1, 1957. 
Random Notes on Game Conditions in Denmark, H. G. Lumsden, No. 17, 

June, 1954. 



- 14 - 

Report on Discussion With J. D. Robertson, Manitoba, Predatory Control 
Officer, the Pas, Manitoba, July 4, 5, 6, 1955, R. Simkoe, 
No. 25, Oct. 1, 1955. 

Road Kills, Lake Simcoe District, J. S. Dorland, Mo. 3 5, June 1, 1957. 

Russian Hunting, Anonymous, No. 40, Apr. 1, 195&. 

Training of Elkhound, Anonymous, No. 15, Feb. 1, 1954. 

Wildlife Notes from James Bay, A. Gagnon & H. G. Lumsden, No. 33, 
Feb. 1, 1957. 

Unpublished Survey Methods, George H. Kelker, No. 22, Apr. 1, 1955. 



- 15 - 

VERTEBRATE ANIMAL LIFE OBSERVED IN THE 
FORT SEVERN AREA, AUGUST, 1957. 

by 

D. W. Simkin 



The following is an annotated list of animals (birds, 
mammals, fish and amphibians) which were observed by the author while 
working on the Salmon project eight miles south of Fort Severn. The 
time of these observations is from August 5th to September 5th. 

Since most of the observations were made up-river from the 
Bay there is no doubt in my mind that several species of shorebirds 
found on the mud flats were not recorded. Also due to the difficulty 
of identifying many species of shorebirds, several species which 
probably were observed are not recorded here. 

Birds ; 

I Gayiiformes 

(1) Common Loon - Gavia imme r, this species was observed flying 
over our tent on one occasion and three were seen at the 
mouth of the Severn River on another occasion. 

II Colymbiformes 

(1) Red-necked Grebe - Colymbus grisegena , on the first day of 
September a red-necked grebe was brought into Fort Severn 
by a native who had shot it near the mouth of Severn River. 

III Ciconiiformes 

(1) American Bittern - B otaurus lentiginosus . This species was 
not uncommon in the ponds which are so numerous north of 
the tree line. Four or five were seen on different occasions. 

IV Anseriformes 

(1) Canada Goose - Branta canadensis interior . This species 
undoubtedly was a nesting species along the banks of Goose 
Creek as many flightless young birds were seen during the 
time spent at Goose Creek. On August 6th, an adult bird 
and two goslings, half the size of the adult, were observed 
about two miles up Goose Creek. The young were still cove- 
red with the fluffy yellow immature feathers. On August 
14th, one adult honker was observed with 12 two-thirds grown 
young in the river in front of our camp. The same evening 
a trip was made about seven miles up Goose Creek, during 
which at least 45 Canada geese were seen, most of which were 
able to fly although somewhat clumsily. Apparently there 
is a fairly wide range in nesting dates, even on the one 
river. 



- 16 - 

On August 20th, I watched a flock of some 200 Canadas settle 
down on a sand bar about two miles up Goose Creek. Since 
these birds were observed to use this same loafing spot from 
that time until we left, I think it might be a good place to 
try to capture a fair number of birds for banding, using a 
cannon trap net. 

(2) Richardson's Goose - Branta canadensis hutchinsii . On 
August 26th, two Richardson's geese were observed feeding 
with a flock of 10 Canada geese. These were the only two 
seen. 

(3) Lesser Snow Goose - C hen hyperborea . Although this species 
is the most common species of waterfowl in this area later 
on in the fall, there were not too many around up until the 
time of my departure. 

On August 30th, the first flock of snow geese was observed. 
It contained about 100-150 birds. From this date forward 
increasing numbers of snow geese were observed on each 
succeeding day. 

(4) Mallard - Anas platyrhynchos. This species is apparently 
a common nesting species in this area and was the most 
common duck seen. 

(5) Black Duck - Anas r ubripes . This species was fairly common, 
being seen about half as often as mallards. 

(6) Pintail - Anas acuta . Next to the mallard this was probably 
the most common species. On August 6th, several pintails 
which were all but flightless were shot by one of the Indians. 
Undoubtedly this is a common nesting species in the Severn 
area. 

(7) Green-winged Teal - Anas carolinensis . This species was not 
observed until about August 20th, at which time a flock of 
fifty or more teal were seen about a mile up stream from 
camp. From that time on many teal were seen almost every 
day. 

(£) Common Goldeneye - Bucephala clangula . Only one of this 

species was observed. It was shot about 1 l/2 miles upstream 
from the Bay on September 1st. 

(9) White-winged Scoter - Melanitta degla ndi. Two of this 
species were observed in the river below the camp for several 
days. After one was collected the other still remained. I 
believe they perhaps bred in the same area. No others were 
seen. f 

(10) Red-breasted Merganser - Mergus serrator . At least two 
broods of mergansers occupied the three miles of river from 
our camp to the Bay. One brood had seven young, the other 
five. By September 1st the young were about as big as the 
duck but still could not fly. No others were seen. 



- 17 - 

V Falconiformes 

(1) Sharp-shinned Hawk - Accipiter striatus . This little demon 
was very common in the area. On two occasions I saw one 
make a determined effort to catch a spotted sandpiper but 
both times it was unsuccessful. 

(2) Rough-legged Hawk - Buteo lagopus . On the lowlands north of 
the tree line it was not uncommon to see three or four of 
these hawks slowly flying over, inspecting every clump of 
brush. 

(3) Osprey - Pandion haliaetus . On August 9th, an osprey was 
observed close to its nest about two miles up Goose Creek, 
Two or three different times an osprey was observed hovering 
over the creek apparently hunting for fish. 

VI Galliformes 

(1) Willow Ptarmigan - Lagopus lagopus . At least twelve 

ptarmigan were seen in the area in various habitats. Two 
birds were occupying the solid stand of black spruce behind 
our camp. Several were seen along the river bank and on the 
open country of the lowlands north of the tree line. 

VII Charadriiformes 

(1) Black-bellied Plover - Squatarola squatarola . On August 
30th, 25 - 50 of this species were observed on the tundra 
north of the tree line. I suspected that I saw another 
flock about a week previous to identifying the species but 
since I could not be sure, I did not record it. Apparently 
they were migrating through the area. 

(2) Wilson 9 s Snipe - Capella gallinago. This was a common 
species throughout the whole period and was observed on the 
tundra every day. 

(3) Spotted Sandpiper - Actitis macularia . This also was quite 
a common species which apparently nests on the rocky beaches 
on the edge of the river. 

(4) Greater Yellow-legs - Totanus melanoleucus . Another common 
species which could be seen and heard every day. 

(5) Dowitcher - Limnodromus griseus . Five of this species were 
observed on September 1st., feeding in their characteristic 
manner on a part of the river bottom which had been recently 
exposed by the outgoing tide. Likely this species was 
migrating through the area. 

(6) Semipalmated Plover - Charadrius semipalmatus . On August 
17th, the first of a pair was noticed moving through the 
area. From that time on it was not uncommon to see this 
species every day, although never in any number. 



- IS - 

(7) Hudsonian Godwit - Limosa haemastica . The first flock was 
seen on September 1st at the mouth of the Severn River. 
Apparently a fair population was moving through the area 
about that time as several flocks of 15 - 25 were seen after 
the first observation. 

(S) Northern Phalarope - Lobipes lobatus . On August 25th, the 
first pair was observed in a shallow pond on the lowlands 
north of the tree line. No more than five were seen while 
at Goose Creek. 

(9) Herring Gull - Larus argentatus . Several gulls of this 
species stayed close to our camp while we were there. 
There were both young and adult birds in the flock. On the 
coast, this species is very common. 

(10) Arctic Tern - Sterna paradisaea . What appeared to be a 
fair-sized nesting colony (200 birds) of this species was 
noticed on a rocky ridge in the middle of Goose Creek about 
a half mile from the Bay. Upstream of this colony it was 
quite uncommon to see a tern but they were quite common 
along the coast. 

VIII Strigiformes 

(1) Great Horned Owl - Bubo virginianus . On clear quiet nights 
the characteristic who-who-ho ho of this species was often 
heard, coming from the wooded part of the lowlands. 

(2) Short-eared Owl - Asio flammeus . This was a common species 
throughout the unwooded country. Just at dusk it was not 
uncommon to see three or four of these moth-like birds at 
one time over the tundra. They were very tame, often hov- 
ering only 10 or 15 feet above me. 

IX Passeriformes 

(1) Eastern Phoebe - Sayornis phoeb e. A few phoebes were 
observed and heard singing along the bushy banks of Goose 
Creek in the timbered country. 

(2) Canada Jay - Perisoreus canadensis . This species was quite 
common around camp. It proved to be a nuisance on the 
small mammal trapline as any animal left in a trap for more 
than a couple of hours was almost certainly mutilated by 
the ever : -searching "whiskey jacks", 

(3) Raven - Corvus cor ax . This species was quite common both 

in the woods and on the open tundra. One specimen collected 
on the tundra had been feeding almost entirely on blue- 
berries. 

(4) Crow - Corvus brachyrhynchos . Crows also were quite common 
when we got to Goose Creek but by the time we left, the 
number observed per day was greatly decreased. Apparently 
they had moved farther south. 



- 19 - 

(5) Brown-capped Chickadee - Parus hudsonicus . This species 
was one of the most common denizens of the spruce woods, 

(6) Robin - Turdus migratorius . A good number of robins were 
observed in the wooded areas but by August 24th it appeared 
that they were aggregating, and by September 5th, they were 
fairly hard to find. 

(7) Yellow Warbler - Dendroica petechia . Only one yellow 
warbler was seen. This was noticed flying around in the 
dense brush on the bank of Goose Creek. 

($) Slate-coloured Junco - Junco hyemalis . This was also a 

common species in the wooded areas. One was caught during 
the course of the small mammal trapping project. 

(9) Harris f Sparrow - Zonotrichia querula . Many of these were 
seen while on the open tundra. 

(10) White-throated Sparrow - Zonotrichia albicollis . This also 
was a common species in the wooded and brushy areas. Four 
of these species were trapped in the small mammal traps. 

(11) Fox Sparrow - Passerella iliaca . This species was uncommon 
in the Goose Creek area. The only place it was observed 
was in the brushy areas along the edge of the river. 



Mammals 



Carnivora 

(1) Polar Bear - Thalarctos maritimus . Although I did not see 
this species, one was observed within 200 yards of our 
coastal camp the day before I arrived. About August 15th, 
the two Indians saw one in approximately the same place. 

(2) Mink - Mustela vison. On August 14th, a mink was seen run- 
ning along the river bank. Upon seeing us it stopped and 
stared until we were within 2 5 feet then it disappeared 
into the woods. 

(3) Red Fox - Vulpes fulva . This animal must be a fairly 
common species in the wooded area. Much sign (scats, bones 
and dens) was found in the wooded spruce area. On August 
16th, a red fox killed a ptarmigan on the trail about a 
mile behind our camp within fifteen minutes after I had 
walked over it. 

(4) Bearded Seal - Erignathus barbatus . One of our I dians 
shot and killed one August 28th, at the mouth of Goose 
Creek. This was tied to a stake in the water and left 
until September 2nd. On this day we took it into Fort 
Severn where it was used for dog food. On September 2nd, 
a seal was spotted in the river in front of the Hudson Bay 
store at Fort Severn. In a matter of minutes four or five 
motor propelled canoes were in the water and the search 
was on. After about forty-five minutes of hunting, and six 
or seven shotgun shots at the ill-fated seal, the hunt was 
abandoned although the seal was no doubt wounded. 



- 20 - 

II Rodents 

(1) Red Squirrel - Tami a sciu rus hudsonicus . This was a common 
species in the wooded areas, 

(2) Beaver - Ca stor canadensis . Although much beaver sign was 
noted all of the way along Goose Creek (viz. fresh cuttings) 
no houses were seen. I believe that the beaver in this 
area tend to live more in banks than in the orthodox house. 

(3) Northern Bog Lemming - Synaptomys borealis . No specimen 
was collected but on August 13th, I found a fox scat which 
contained the incisors of an individual of this species. 
Much sign of lemming was observed in the sphagnum bog 
areas. 

(4) Red-backed Vole - C lethrionomys gapperi . Three voles were 
caught in small mammal traps set in the spruce woods. A 
skull of this species was also found in a fox scat. 

(5) Muskrat - Ondatra zibethica . This was the most often 
observed mammal in the area. One evening I saw at least 
four swimming in a pothole of less than one acre. Several 
others were observed throughout the period spent in this 
area. As all the rats seen were in shallow potholes which 
undoubtedly freeze solid, I imagine that they must either 
succumb to the elements in the winter or move upstream to 
deeper areas. I think probably the former statement is 
usually the case and that the animals seen are ones which 
have moved out from wintering areas where the water does 
not freeze to the bottom. 

III Lagomorpha 

(1) Snowshoe Hare - Lepus americanus . Very little sign of 
this species was observed but on August 16th, a snowshoe 
hare was found drowned in one of our gill nets. Apparently 
it had attempted to swim across a narrow stream and had 
run into the net where it became hopelessly entangled and 
drowned. 

IV Artiodactyla 

(1) Caribou - Rangifer caribou . Fresh tracks of this mammal 

were seen along the edge of Goose Creek on several occasions. 
Also fresh tracks were seen in the woods behind our camp on 
two different occasions. 

V Cetacea 

(1) White Whale - D elphinapt erus leucas . One individual of 
this species was reported at the mouth of Severn River by 
Dan Priest, the Pentacostal missionary at Fort Severn on 
September 2nd. 



- 21 - 



Fish 



(1) Eastern Brook Trout - Salvelinus fontinalis . This species 
is quite common in Goose Creek, several being caught daily 
in our gill nets. One pseudophyllidian tapeworm was 
collected from this species. 

(2) Northern Pike - Esox lucius . Several jackfish were caught 
in our gill nets. I believe they came directly from 
Hudson Bay to our nets, as two were caught which had 
remains of ling in them. 

(3) Common Sucker - Catastomus commersonii . This species was 
quite often caught in our gill nets. 

(4) Sturgeon Sucker or Long-nosed Sucker - Catastomus catosto - 
mus . This species was taken in our nets on a few occasions, 
not being as common as the common sucker. 

(5) Ling or Burbot - Lota lota lacustris . Two specimens were 
removed from the stomach of northern pike. It is felt 
that these were from the deeper water of the Bay. 



Amphibians 



(1) Wood Frog - This was the only amphibian observed in the 
area but was quite plentiful, being in almost every pond. 



- 22 - 

WINTER TRIP FROM WEENUSK TO HAWLEY LAKE 
FEBRUARY, 1955 

by 

J. A. Macfie 



During the period February 15th to 19th, 1955* I accom- 
panied Fr. J. B. Gagnon, of the R.C. Mission at Weenusk, on a dogteam 
trip from Weenusk to Hawley Lake, and back to Weenusk. The total 
distance travelled was about 120 miles. Two-thirds of the route 
lay within trapline P.C. 1$3> the remainder in the Patricia East 
district. Moses Koostachin, head trapper on P.C. 183 > accompanied 
us. 

Our half-way camp, both coming and going, was situated 
at a small creek at lat. 54°56»N long. 84°56«W. 

On Feb. 17th I spent the day travelling the east shore 
of the north half of Hawley Lake. 

During the first day out from Weenusk the level muskeg 
and sparse growth of trees permitted a steady course toward Hawley 
Lake. Since the route lay more or less at a right angle to the 
drainage pattern, we simply crossed the streams where we came to 
them, instead of following the watercourse as is usually done in 
more heavily timbered country. This reduced the effectiveness of 
the trip as far as water animals are concerned. At lat. 54°4$ V N the 
land begins rising to the south-eastward, and continues to do so 
for the remaining 25 miles to Hawley Lake. The first Pre-Can.brian 
rock outcropping appears on a narrow, crooked lake at 54°45 9 N 34° 
42 ? W. This country contains a few small lakes, and our route changed 
direction here and there to take advantage of them, the timber being 
heavy enough to require a cut out trail. However, even here we 
followed no streams. 

Only black spruce and tamarack trees grow in the low 
country; very much stunted in the muskeg itself, and occasionally 
reaching 6" D.B.H. along the banks of the larger streams. A few 
clumps of balsam poplar appear on the upland, the first at lat# 
54°50 9 N. At Hawley Lake white spruce and trembling aspen occur 
sparingly. Much of the high country, from lat. 54°48 V N to Hawley 
Lake, was burned over about 1950, and no regeneration of spruce yet 
shows above the snow. 

Caribou 

On the outward trip, I saw eleven places where bands of 
caribou had crossed the trail. At eight of these, tracks showed; 
at the other three, only caribou droppings were evident. On Feb. 
17th a strong wind blew considerable snow off the muskeg, and caribou 
droppings were visible in 22 places on our return trip. The sizes 



- 23 - 

of the bands which left tracks visible ranged from four to about 
fifteen animals. Only one set of tracks was fresh, the ten caribou 
having crossed the trail a few hours ahead of us. They were walking 
north. When they came to the track of a dogteam which had passed 
one day ahead of us, they seemed to become alarmed, as some of them 
left at a run. Moses said this nervous reaction accounted for the 
frequent occurrences of caribou droppings on the road. In one 
instance caribou bedded down beside the road, but the route is 
seldom travelled, and probably only a fresh track scares them. 
Whether due to fear, or the fact that they pause to investigate the 
sleigh tracks, they usually left droppings where they crossed the 
trail. Where tracks had been obliterated this evidence remained, 
leaving a record of several weeks of caribou crossings. 

All of the caribou tracks were seen between lat. 54°4& 9 N 
and 55°04 ? N (a distance of about 20 miles), generally in the more 
hummocky muskeg areas. It would be impossible to estimate the 
number of caribou in the area, due to the unknown age and probable 
duplication of tracks. Fr. Gagnon has made the trip seven years 
in succession, and never before did he see so many tracks. Moses 
thinks caribou have increased markedly in recent years. He and his 
three sons have killed 21 caribou so far this winter. Last winter 
they killed nine, and none are recorded as having been killed before 
that (records began in 1949). The estimate for the trapline has 
risen from three in 1949 to 30 in 1954. Moses saw one band of 22 
caribou this winter. It appears that there has been a definite 
local increase in the caribou population, and that P.C. 1#3 contains 
considerably more than the estimate of 30 made by Moses Koostachin 
last summer. 

On Feb. 12th, Xavier Bird killed five out of a band of 
five caribou he hunted down 8 miles west of the settlement at Weenusk, 
and 15 miles further west he killed two out of four. The skull 
from a male has been obtained for the Royal Ontario Museum. Fr. 
Gagnon knows of 33 caribou killed to date this winter by Weenusk men, 
most, or all, within 25 miles of the coast. Several more will have 
been killed by inland hunters. The Chokomolins at Hawley Lake have 
killed two this winter. According to Moses and Fr. Gagnon, the 
Indians have to hunt the caribou in order to shoot them. In their 
routine travels they usually have dogs with them, and the caribou 
are extremely shy. 

While flying from Lansdowne to Weenusk enroute home, I 
saw caribou tracks at the following pointss 53°, 30 v , 53°50»N, 
54°15 V N and 54°32 ? N. 

Moose 

I saw no moose tracks. Louis Chokonolin said there are 
four moose near Sutton Narrows this winter, and two to four more 
about ten miles down the Sutton River from Hawley Lake. Weenusk 
trappers saw the tracks of two moose near the junction of the 
Shamattawa and Winisk Rivers before Christmas. 



- 24 - 

Marten 

On August 27, 1952, 12 male and four female marten were 
released at the Chokomolin camp at the north end of Hawley Lake. 
According to Louis Chokomolin, marten are now to be found in three 
distinct pockets^ one at the point of release, one on and around a 
hill six miles north of the planting site, and a third four miles 
west of the half way point of Hawley Lake. Bertie Sutherland added 
that he had seen many tracks around Sutton Narrows. One or more 
tracks have been seen at greater distances from Hawley Lake. 

On Feb. 17th I spent the day along the east shore of the 
north half of Hawley Lake. Marten tracks were visible from within 
a quarter mile of the Chokomolin camp to as far south as I travelled. 
The best concentration of tracks was at a point opposite the Lands 
and Forests cabin. It was difficult to date the tracks, due to a 
snowfall the previous night, but the abundance was equal to the 
best I have seen in marten country in the Ogoki (P.C. 215) and 
Lansdowne (PcC. 195) band areas. 

The marten seem to prefer the heavily timbered shoreline 
to the more open plateau that rises about 100 feet above the lake, 
300 yds. back from the shore. The timber is a mixture of black and 
white spruce, tamarack and a few balsam poplar and trembling aspen. 

Squirrel and mouse tracks were common among the marten 
tracks, and I saw where a marten had eaten a mouse. I saw no 
rabbit tracks in the vicinity of Hawley Lake. 

If the local Indians are correct in saying that the other 
pockets contain as much sign of marten as the one I visited, then 
the planting must be thriving, and spreading satisfactorily. 

Mink 

Although the Weenusk trappers have enjoyed a record mink 
catch this season, we passed only two mink tracks, one of them 
several days old, between Weenusk and Hawley Lake. 

Weasel 

Weasel tracks were seen frequently, particularly on the 
upland near Hawley Lake. 

Ottfr 

We saw four otter tracks. One of these, at Wachusk River, 
had been recently made ; the others, in the muskeg, were a few days 
old. 

Fox 

Fox tracks were plentiful over the whole route, particular- 
ly so within 10 miles of the coast. On two occasions I saw where 



- 25 - 

a fox had killed a mouse, and eaten only the head. While we were 
away from the village, a red fox was shot in front of the store at 
Weenusk. A few days later at Weenusk, I heard a fox barking within 
a few feet of the Hudson's Bay Co. residence, during the night. 
White foxes are less plentiful along the coast than last year. Only 
one trapper had set traps for them up until the time I left Weenusk, 
and he had caught seven foxes. 

Wolf 

We saw wolf droppings near the boundary of P.C. 183 and 
the Patricia East District. Moses told of seeing where a wolf had 
killed a caribou this winter. He thinks there are about four 
wolves on his trapline. 

Lynx 

In the high country near Hawley Lake we saw two lynx 
tracks, one old and one recent. The Chokomolins said lynx reappeared 
there in 1954 after many years absence. 

Varying Hare 

Rabbits are scarce in the Weenusk band area this winter. 
Their tracks were seen most often in the burned upland, but at best 
they would be considered to be at a low level of population. 

B eaver 

Because we did not follow streams in our travelling, we 
had little chance of seeing beaver evidence. I saw a fresh beaver 
cutting on the long, crooked lake at 54°45 V N S4°42 9 W, and Moses 
said there was an occupied beaver house on the lake. The whole 
area must be considered very inferior beaver habitat, willow being 
about the only land flora available to them. 

Polar Bear 

No bears have been seen in the vicinity of Weenusk this 
winter, and so far as Fr. Gagnon knows, none have been seen any- 
where in the Weenusk band area. During a dogteam trip to Severn 
in November, 1953 , he saw seven or eight tracks, and three bears. 
On a similar trip in November, 1954, he saw only one track. 

Mice and Shrews 

According to the Indians at Weenusk and Hawley Lake, mice 
and shrews have been extremely plentiful this fall and winter. 



result ss 



I set out five traps at three points, with the following 

Hawley Lakes (in willow and spruce near shore) 
5 trap night ss - 1 Clethrionomys 

1 Sorex cinereus 



- 26 - 

Lat. 54°56 ? N long. #4°56 9 Ws (in muskeg) 

10 trap nightss 1 Synaptomys ( borealis ?) 

Weenusks (in and about buildings) 
20 trap nightss nil 

At Weenusk I found two Microtus pennsylvanicus dead on 
the snow. One was on the Winisk River, 50 yds. from shore, and the 
other on the tundra near the river mouth. 

Ptarmigan 

There were a few ptarmigan around the settlement at 
Weenusk, and I saw the tracks of several at Hawley Lake. We 
occasionally saw tracks while travelling between the two points, 
and we saw three ptarmigan in the willow covered burned country 
ten miles northwest of Hawley Lake. Moses considers them to be of 
below average abundance this year. 

Spruce and Sharp-tailed Grouse 

We saw no signs of either of these grouse, and Moses 
said they are quite scarce this year. 

Owls 

We saw five hawk owls , a pair and three singles. They 
seemed to be attracted by the noise we made, and flew over to 
follow us. I saw one snowy owl hunting mice on the tundra near the 
mouth of the Winisk River. Indians have several owl traps set on 
platforms out there, and one of them contained a dead owl when I 
was down at the coast. 

Raven 

I heard a raven near Hawley Lake. 
Canada Jay 

These were seen at several points along the way. 



- 27 - 

DUCK NESTING BASKETS 

by 

G. F. Boyer 



The Mew York State Conservation Department has had very 
good success recently with specially constructed nest baskets for 
use by waterfowl. The following information regarding utilization, 
siting and construction of these baskets has been kindly furnished 
to me by Mr. Dirck Benson, Leader, Waterfowl Management Research, 
New York Conservation Department. 

Utilization - Mainly by mallards and blacks and also a few pairs of 
of blue-winged teal. Approximately 200 baskets at Oak Orchard 
Refuge were constructed in 1957. Of these, 106 were utilized with 
a nesting success of 55$ which is about 10$ above the calculated 
average under natural conditions. Depredation occurred mainly by 
coons although there were a few cases of mink damage. 

S iting - So far the nest baskets have all been attached to trees 
in flooded, wooded swamplands. The most readily used sites 
were in trees which bordered on open water. In extensive flood 
swamps, baskets situated 100 yards or more from the open water were 
not often utilized. 

Nest sites from one to six feet above the water are 
satisfactory. The best height recommended was two feet above the 
highest water level expected. Trees which branch into two or three 
trunks at the base are most suitable for attaching baskets. 

Conatruction 

Chicken wire of lj" mesh was used at Oak Orchard although 
any scrap wire netting should be suitable. The dimensions of the 
platform were approximately 2x2 feet but varied to fit the loca- 
tion. There should be a slight sag to help hold the nesting material. 

Nesting material consisted of generous quantities of 
either old hay or straw. In some cases local vegetation such as 
cattail material was used. Care should be taken to see that the 
material is not blown out by wind or washed out by wave action. 
This was remedied at Oak Orchard by weaving some of the material 
through the netting or securing it with twine. (For construction 
details see Diagram 1). 

Proposed Improvements 

So far no overhead cover was used on the nest sites. 
Although crow destruction has not yet been evident it was feared by 
Mr. Benson that exposed sites would be especially vulnerable. To 
reduce observation by crows it is planned to place another layer of 
netting about one foot above the basket and to camouflage this 
layer with further vegetation. 



- 23 - 



P roposed Sites in Cattail and Bulrush Marshes 

The following design is contemplated in marsh areas where 
trees are not available. 

A stake with a cross bar to be driven into the marsh and 
a roll of wire about 12 to 15 inches in diameter to be fastened to 
the horizontal and vertical components of this "gallows". This 
roll would be stuffed with hay or straw so packed as to leave nest 
site holes. As these nests would be in open conditions, consid- 
erable effort should be made to camouflage them from crows 
(Diagram 2) . 

Nest sites in large marsh areas would be particularly- 
advantageous where there is a minimum of safe nesting cover in 
relation to potential rearing cover. 

Duck Nest Baskets 




suggested crow shield 



chicken wire stapled or wired to tree, 



water level (high) 



Diagram 1. Tree Site - for wooded, flooded swamp areas. 




chicken wire roll wired to top and side 
and filled with material packed to leave 
potential nest site holes. 



water level (high) 



Diagram 2. Potential "Gallows" Site - for marsh areas. 



- 29 - 

RESULTS OF THE DUCK BANDING PROGRAMME AT THE 
TORONTO ISLANDS, 1954 and 1955 

by 
A. de Vos 



Purpose of the Banding; Programme 

The mallard population now present at the Toronto Islands is 
considered to descend from a release of semi-domesticated mallards, 
with European Mallard blood, around 1931* 

In the opinion of many local people, familiar with this 
population, these birds stay around the islands throughout the entire 
year and, since no hunting is permitted on the islands, they do not add 
to the hunters* bag. It was suggested by Dr. C.H.D. Clarke, Supervisor 
of Wildlife Management of the Fish and Wildlife Division of the 
Department of Lands and Forests that this was erroneous, and that 
these ducks no doubt migrate and therefore add to the hunters 9 bag. 

Banding in the Years 1954 and 1955 

Reports have been submitted previously (by W.J.D. Stephen, 
July 4, (see Fish & Wildl. Mgt. Report #20, Dec. 1, 1954) 1954, and 
by W.J.D. Stephen and J, Goddard, July 4, 1955 (see Fish & Wildl. Mgt. 
Report #26, Dec, 1955) to the Toronto Anglers and Hunters Association, 
and government agencies concerned. 

In 1954, one-hundred and fifty-eight ducks were banded, of 
which one-hundred and forty-four were mallards, and fifty-nine were 
black ducks. 

In 1955 one-hundred and thirty-eight ducks were banded, one- 
hundred and seven were mallards and thirty-one were black ducks. 

A nalysis of Band Returns 

So far, twenty-seven bands have been returned or about 9% 
of the birds that were banded and released. Table No. 1 lists these 
recoveries in three categories, namelys 

1. Birds recovered within a 25-mile radius of the banding site. 
These are considered local recoveries and include thirteen birds, or 
about fifty percent of the recovered birds. 

2» Birds obtained beyond a 25-mile radius of the banding site, in 
southern Ontario. This includes seven birds, or about twenty-five 
percent. 

3. Birds recovered in the United States, including seven birds, or 
about twenty-five percent. Among these, only one mallard was reco- 
vered in the mid-west (Illinois) and one in the extreme south (Florida]L 
The others were recovered in the northeast. 



- 30 - 

Among the recoveries, nine were black ducks, the others 
mallards. No difference can be noticed in the recoveries of mallards 
and black ducks. 

Conclusions 

Based on the, admittedly small, sample of band returns it 
may be suggested that the mallard population of the Toronto Islands, 
does scatter in southern Ontario and migrates to a greater or lesser 
extent. This population contributes to the hunters 9 bag and undoub- 
tedly aided in the re-establishment of a breeding population in 
southern Ontario. 



- 31 - 



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- 33 - 






RESULTS OF DUCK BANDING OPERATIONS AT THE 
FEDERAL WATERFOWL SANCTUARY, GUELPH, 1955-56 



A. T, 



by 
Cringan 



Introduction 

The Federal Waterfowl Sanctuary embraces a two-mile length 
of the Speed River just south of Guelph. It is used as a feeding and 
stop-over area by migrating ducks in the autumn. Peak fall concen- 
trations of between 500 and 750 ducks usually build up during November. 
Mallards and Black Ducks usually comprise between 80% and 90$ of the 
fall population. Lesser numbers of Baldpates, Pintails, Wood Ducks 
and several other species may be present. 

This sanctuary also provides winter-long habitat for between 
200 and 250 dabbling ducks, mostly Black Ducks but also some Mallards. 
In late winter and early spring, considerable numbers of Common 
Golden-eyes occur. 

The following presents a contrast between maximum fall popu- 
lations and those present at the time of the mid-winter waterfowl 
inventory during the past three yearss 

1955-56 



Fall Peak 






Mid- 


-winter Inventory 


November 8, 


1955 




J. 


anuary 10, 1956 


351 




Black Duck 




175 


223 




Mallard 




25 


40 




Baldpate 






5 




Wood Duck 






3 




Blue-winged Teal 






3 




Green-winged Teal 






1 




Pintail 






1 




Redhead 











Common Golden-eye 




11 



627 



Fall Peak 
December 5» 1956 

23 
357 



335 



Total 



1956-57 



Mallard* 
Black Duck 
Common Golden-eye 
Common Merganser 

Total 



211 



Mid-winter Inventory 
January 11, 1957 

12 

232 

1 

2 

247 



x - 90 Mallards were seen on November 20, 1956. 







- 34 - 












1957-53 








Fall Peak 
September 26, 


1957 




M 


id- 


-winter Inventory 
anuary 17, 1958 


id9 

415 
46 
34 
14 




Mallard 

Black Duck 

Blacks and Mallards 

Blue-wineed Teal 

Wood Duck 






50 
200 


14 
1 




Green-winged Teal 
Bald pat e 
Canvasback 
Common Golden- eye 






1 



717 Total 251 

O bjectives of Banding Study 

A program of banding was carried out in 1955-56 for the 
purposes of: 

1. determining the subsequent dispersal of ducks passing 
through this sanctuary during the fall and early winter; 

2. gauging the protective value of the sanctuary. 

Banding was carried out by Mr. J. Forestell, whose serivces 
were made available through the courtesy of Mr. H.G. Mack of 
Gilson Industries, Limited., 3 56 Black Ducks and 141 Mallards, a 
total of 497 ducks, were banded between August 30, 1955 and 
January 12, 1956. 

Returns 

During the two years since this banding operation terminated, 
63 of the 497 bands used, 12.7$, have been returned. For the 
Mallard, 30 of the 141 bands, 21.3$, have been returned, and for 
the Black Duck, 33 of the 356, or 9.3$. Particulars concerning 
individual returns are given in Tables 1 and 2. 

Analysis of Returns 

The geographic origin of returns is as follows: 

Local Returns Returns from Ontario Returns from 
Within 25 miles Beyond 25 Miles outside of 

of Sanctuary from Sanctuary Ontario 

No. of Per Cent ' her uent " Per Cent 
S pecie s Returns No . of return s N o . of returns No . of returns 

Black 

Duck 33 16 48 8 24 9 27 

Mallard 30 12 40 _5 17 13 43 

Total 63 28 13 22 



- 35 - 

In addition, a Mallard-Black Duck hybrid that was banded in 
the Sanctuary, was recovered near Moosonee, Ontario. 

The returns from outside of Ontario, were, with two excep- 
tions, all from an area bounded by Tennessee, North Carolina, 
Pennsylvania and Michigan. The other two out-of-province returns, 
both from birds banded as immature male Mallards, were from 
Hampdon, N.D., and The Pas, Manitoba. 

S ummary and Conclusions 

1 . Numbers of Black Ducks present on the Federal Waterfowl 
Sanctuary at Guelph range fro.'.: 3 50 to 415 at the fall peak down 
to 175 to 23 5 during the mid-winter period between 1955-56 and 
1957-53. 

2. Numbers of Mallards present range from 90 to 225 at the fall 
peak and from 12 to 50 during the mid-winter period in the same 
years. 

3. Bands from 9-3$ of 356 Black Ducks banded during 1955-56 have 
since been recovered. This low rate of returns is associated with 
the high numbers of the Black Ducks that apparently remain on the 
Sanctuary during the winter. 

4. Bands from 21.3$ of 141 Mallards banded during 1955-56 have 
since been recovered. This high rate of return is associated with 
low numbers of Mallards remaining in the Sanctuary during the 

Winter . 

5 . Mallards banded in this Sanctuary display greater dispersal 
than Black Ducks banded there. The rate of recovery of banded 
Mallards non-locally exceeds the total rate of recovery of banded 
Black Ducks (12.$$ of 9«3%), anci the rate of recovery of banded 
Mallards locally (6.5$) exceeds the rate of recovery of Black 
Ducks banded locally (4*5$) • 



ATC/lg 
February, 19 5 6 



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- 40 - 

CHECK-LIST OF THE FISHES TAKEN IN THE 
ATTAWAPISKAT RIVER AND ADJOINING JAMES BAY, 1957 

by 
R. A. Ryder 



The following check-list is composed of the fish species 
taken incidentally during the netting operations in the Attawapiskat 
River and tributaries, James Bay, and tidal pools and creeks on 
Akimiski Island. As the gear employed was designed primarily to 
capture mature chum salmon ( Oncorhynchus k eta ) , it was highly selec- 
tive in nature. Consequently, several species known to inhabit the 
area were not found in the collections. 

The sampling gear consisted of 4 and 4i inch (stretched 
measure) gill nets, two seines of different mesh sizes, and two 
minnow traps. 

In all, twenty species and one hybrid were taken represen- 
ting twelve families. Sample specimens of each species with the 
exception of the capelin (M allotus villosus ) were forwarded to the 
Royal Ontario Museum and were identified by Dr, W. B. Scott and E. J. 
Crossman. 

Species Fresh Water Salt Water 

Acipenser fulvescens 

Coregonus clupeaformis 

C oregonus artedi 

Coregonus clupeaformis X Coregonus artedi 

S alvelinus fontinalis 

Mallotus villosus 

C atostomus commersoni x 

C atostomus catostomus x 

Moxostoma aureolum x 

C ouesius plumbeus x 

R hinichthys cataractae x 

E sox lucius x 

Percopsis omiscomaycus x 



X 


XX 


X 


XX 


X 


XX 


X 


9 

• 


X 


X 



■ ■ 



... ■ • 



- 41 - 



Species 



Stizostedion vitreum 
Percina caprodes 
Boleosoma nigrum 
Cottus ricei 

Myoxocephalus quadricornis 
G asterosteus aculeatus 
P ungitius pungitius 
Lota lota 



Fresh Water Salt Water 
x 

X 

X 

X X 

X XX 

X X 

X XX 

X 



x - Captured in the water designated, 
xx - Known to occur in the water designated, 
? - Believed to occur in the water designated. 



- 42 - 

REPORT ON AUGUST SECTION OF 
PACIFIC SALMON PROJECT AT ATTAWAPISKAT 

by 
H. G. Cumming 



Purpose 

To supervise salmon netting operations in the Attawapiskat 
River. 

Party 

H. G. Cumming, I. A. M. Veitch. 
Time 

August 7 to September 9, 1957. 

P rocedure 

Since preliminary arrangements had been completed by 
Ryder's party and a working routine had already been going for about 
a month, it was only necessary to see that this routine was carried 
on. 

We were somewhat handicapped by the fact that the previous 
party was taken out on the same trip that brought us in. If they 
had been able to remain for even a day, it would have been possible 
to learn what was going on. As it was, we were left in the position 
of having to find out from the Indians what they were supposed to be 
doing. 

The routine of setting, lifting and cleaning nets was 
already underway. This was continued and catches were examined 
daily. All netting was done in the Attawapiskat River with the 
exception of a couple of sets which were made in the Ekwan Channel. 
This work went along without any trouble except for a few minor 
disturbances such as the change of net cleaners and one major problem 
when the cheques for the Indians for the first month's work failed 
to come in. However, the netting continued without major interrup- 
tions. 

Examination of the daily catches included the taking of 
scale samples, lengths and sexes from all yellow pickerel and 
speckled trout. All small sturgeon were tagged, cut open and pre- 
served in formalin. We had been informed that sufficient numbers 
of the other species had already bean collected. Temperatures of the 
river water were also recorded. 



- 43 - 

Besides the work directly concerned with the netting, we 
had some time for other projects. Snap traps for small mammals were 
set out on several occasions. Whenever possible, trips were made to 
the coast of James Bay, to small islands lying off the coast, and to 
Akimiski Island to observe the plentiful bird life. On days when 
adverse weather and tide conditions made such activities inadvisable, 
the opportunity was used for work on reports for the Geraldton 
District. 

Observations 

The only unusual specimens taken in the nets were two fish 
of the Genus Cottus . These were duly preserved. No fish that looked 
even remotely like a salmon, excepting speckled trout, were seen. 

The small mammal traps did not take any surprising species, 
but we did have one unusual catch. On August 20, eighteen traps 
set on the tidal flats in the long grass near the mouth of the 
Attawapiskat River for one night and reset twice during the day 
produced a total of sixteen Microtus . Besides this, two of the traps 
were missing on the last check, apparently because some of the ever 
present hawks had taken them along with their catches. This suggests 
a total catch of eighteen. It was a truly remarkable experience to 
reset the traps and return in a half hour to find five or six mice. 

The only larger mammal life seen was on August 20. On 
the way to some small islands off the coast we came upon a seal. It 
was about seven feet long and was estimated at 300 pounds by the 
Indians. It seemed dark brown with grey around the head. It 
surfaced several times quite close, while I tried to get a picture, 
but soon left when the Indians began shooting. Later in our stay, 
we saw two seals that the Indians had shot in the river and brought 
in for dog feed. 

A complete record of bird observations was kept and is 
here presented in edited form. 

Canada Geese - The first Canada Geese were seen on August 13 when 
eight flew over Attawapiskat at 0730. On August 23 about thirty 
flew by the river mouth. No more were seen until September 1 when 
a trip was made to Akimiski Island. There, many small flocks of 
Canada Geese were seen flying back and forth along the tidal flats 
all day long. 

B rant - The only Brant seen were flying over the water as we returned 
from Akimiski Island on September 3. There were about five. 

Snow Geese - The only Snow Geese seen were on Akimiski Island on 
September 2. Several flocks of up to fifty were mixed in with the 
flocks of Canada Geese. 

Mallard - On August 23 a flock of about fifty Mallards and Black 
Ducks took off from flats at the mouth of the Attawapiskat River. 
On August 31 four Mallards were seen on Akimiski Island. 



- 44 - 

Black Duck - On August 1$ five Black Ducks took off from the lee side 
of a small pond on the tidal flats. On August 20 four Black Ducks 
were seen on one of the small coastal islands. On August 23 a flock 
of about fifty Black Ducks and Mallards took off from the river 
mouth. Also, a flock of about one hundred and fifty ducks on the 
end of a point, were mostly Black Ducks. 

Baldpate - None were seen in the field but some were shot by Indians. 

Pintail - No pintails were identified in the field, but a few turned 
up in hunters 9 bags. 

Green-winged Teal - On August 9, a Green-winged Teal with fourteen 
young was discovered in one of the ponds on the tidal flats near the 
river mouth. The adult put on quite a display approaching to within 
ten feet of us. The young could not fly. 

On August 23, two Green-winged Teal were seen near the 
river mouth. 

On August 31 two were seen on Akimiski Island. 

Several were again seen the next day. 

Blue-winged Teal - On August 20, eleven Blue-winged Teal were seen 
flying at the river mouth. 

Goldeneye - On August 20 two ducks believed to be female Goldeneyes 
were seen near the river mouth. 

Marsh Hawk - Marsh Hawks were probably the most common birds to be 
found over the tidal flats. They were seen every time we were there 
They were obviously feeding on the very high Mi c rot us population 
which was found under the long grass. 

Osprey - On August 9 an Osprey was seen flying over the river. 

Pig eon Hawk - On August 20, two Pigeon Hawks were seen on a small 
island off the coast. They were very fast in flight as they went in 
and out around the scattered trees. Flight resembled that of a pi- 
geon. 

Semipalmated Plover - On September 2 one was seen standing alone on 
the shore of Akimiski Island. 

Golden Plover - August 20, several Golden Plovers were seen on small 
islands near the coast. 

Black-bellied Plover - August 20 several Black-bellied Plovers were 
seen on small coastal islands. 

These two Plovers were fairly common along the shores but 
were rather difficult to differentiate in their summer plumage. 

Ruddy Turnstone - On August 20 about a dozen Ruddy Turnstones were 
seen among the other shorebirds on one of the small islands. They 
were not uncommon. 



- 45 - 

H udsonian Curlew - On August 20, two Hudsonian Curlews were shot by 
the Indians on one of the small islands. The second one was called 
down from flying along the shore. It sat on the shore only moving 
a few feet while two shots were fired at it with a .22 rifle as the 
Indians kept calling it. They finally got it with the third shot. 

S potted Sandpiper - On August 20 a Spotted Sandpiper was seen on one 
of the small coastal islands. 

G reater Yellowlegs - On August 31 a Greater Yellowlegs was positively 
identified in a small pond on the tidal flats near the river mouth. 

On September 2 some greater Yellowlegs were seen on the 
shore of Akimiski Island. 

Lesser Yellowlegs - On August 9 a Lesser Yellowlegs was seen on the 
delta of the river. On August 19 several Lesser Yellowlegs were seen. 
On September 2, some Lesser Yellowlegs were seen on Akimiski Island. 
Both Yellowlegs were quite common with the Lesser a little more 
numerous. 

Pectoral Sandpipe r - On September 1, a large number of Pectoral 
Sandpipers were feeding in scattered small flocks through the grass 
on the tidal flats of Akimiski Island. 

R ed-backed Sandpiper - On August 20, many hundreds of Red-backed 
Sandpipers, most of which were at least partially in spring plumage, 
were on one of the small coastal islands. One flock, sitting in the 
low grass, was estimated at about a thousand. Many birds stood en 
one foot with their heads under their wings. They were so determined 
not to be disturbed that they would hop along on one foot for awhile 
when approached, before being forced to put down the other foot and 
run or fly. 

Semi pal mated S andpiper - On August 20, some Sandpipers on shore 
believed at first to be Sanderlings, were probably Semipalmated. 
On August 31, many small sandpipers believed to be Semipalmated were 
observed eating in mud at low tide. 

Hudsonian Godwit - On August 20, two Hudsonian Godwits were seen on 
one of the small coastal islands. On September 2, several Hudsonian 
Godwits were seen on Akimiski Island. 

Herring Gull - On August 19* Herring Gulls were recorded over the 
river. They were quite common. 

Bonaparte 9 s Gull - On August 9> three juvenile Bonaparte's Gulls were 
seen swimming in the river. 

Common Tern - Some Terns were seen, but since they were not positively 
identified they are presumed to have been Common Terns. 



- 46' - 

Short-eared Owl - On August 9> on our first trip to the Bay, some 
greyish Owls were seen circling over the tidal flats. These were 
seen on every subsequent trip and were identified as Short-eared 
Owls. Apparently they, like the Marsh Hawks, lived off the high 
Microtine population. 

Belted Kingfisher - On August 20, a Kingfisher was seen while we 
were on the river. 

Horned Lark - August 20, two Northern Horned Larks were seen on one 
of the several islands. 

Yellow Warbler - August 20, some Yellow Warblers were seen in the 
brush of one of the small coastal islands. 

Sparrows - Several Sparrows were flushed from the grass of the tidal 
flats from time to time, but they were very difficult to identify. 
Probably most of them were Savannah Sparrows. 

On September 1, while I was waiting for Geese beneath 
some willows on Akimiski Island, some Sparrows flew about the willows 
acting much like Cedar Waxwings. Their voices were very high, weak 
and twittery, with occasional louder chips. After watching them all 
afternoon, I decided they were Ipswich Sparrows, only to find the 
range did not fit. They were never positively identified. 

We had two opportunities for checking hunters 9 bags. On 
August 21, some hunters came into the village with a bag as follows? 
3 female mallards, 1 black duck, 1 pintail, 10 Hudsonian godwits. 

On September 2, the weekend bag for three hunters was as 
follows? 21 Canada geese, 1+ wavies, 5 baldpates, 5 pintails, 2 
black ducks, 1 female mallard, 1 green-winged teal. 

Summary and Recommendations 

Approximately one month was spent at Attawapiskat supervis- 
ing netting, examining fish, taking temperatures, setting snap traps 
for small mammals, making field trips and writing reports. 

No salmon were taken. 

We were unable to suggest any change in netting procedure 
which might yield better results. It might be possible for one 
man to run the operation with the help of the Indians, or if still 
more economies were desirable, it might suffice to send in a barrel 
of preservative and have the Indians do all the netting and preserve 
all speckled trout and other possible salmon for later positive 
identification. 



- 47 - 



THE CASE FOR FISH HATCHERIES IN ONTARIO 91 



by 
G. C. Armstrong 



Ontario operates 21 fish hatcheries for the production of 
game and commercial species for the stocking of public waters in the 
Province, These facilities include eight trout rearing stations, 
eight pond stations and five commercial fish or jar hatcheries. 

The production of hatchery fish in Ontario varies annually 
depending largely on the collection of commercial fish stocks. 
However, in recent years the overall trend in production has been 
downward, particularly insofar as the commercial species, i.e., 
yellow walleye (pickerel), whitefish and herring are concerned. The 
number of game fish produced has also been smaller but this change 
is due mainly to the present policy of the Department to produce 
fewer but larger size fish for distribution. The lake trout, a 
commercial species in Ontario, is being maintained at maximum pro- 
duction, primarily for the rehabilitation programs currently planned 
for Lake Superior and Lake Ontario, In 1956, the following species 
were cultured for distribution in the Provinces 

S pecies 

(a) Commercial Species - 

Whitefish Pacific Salmon 

Yellow Walleye Herring 

(b) Game Fish species - 

Largemouth Bass Brown Trout 

Smallmouth Bass Kamloops Trout 

French Alpine Char Lake Trout 

Maskinonge Rainbow Trout 

Ouananiche Speckled Trout 
Splake 

The fish hatchery has been and probably still is the most 
popular tool of fisheries management in Ontario. Since the estab- 
lishment of the first fish hatchery in Ontario by the Dominion 
Government in 1#67 the art of fish culture has played a prominent 
role in our fisheries work. The Provincial Government first entered 
the field with experimental studies on the culture of bass in 1909. 
Subsequently both agencies expanded their service to meet the public 
interest and demand until 1926 when the Federal Government withdrew 



* Paper presented at the Northeast Wildlife Conference, Montreal, 
January 4-7, 1958. 



- 4# - 

from the fisheries field in Ontario and turned the six Dominion 
hatcheries then in operation over to the Province for further use. 
By the mid-forties a total of 28 permanent stations were in produc- 
tion. However at this time a major change was made in Ontario's 
hatchery policy following the results from numerous research studies 
which clearly demonstrated some of the practical limitations of 
hatchery plantings. Since then seven of the 2$ permanent stations 
including, six commercial fish or jar hatcheries and one small 
rearing station, have been closed. The jar hatcheries were closed 
mainly because of lack of stock and/or questionable value. The 
rearing station was abandoned owing to the deterioration of the 
quality and quantity of the water supply. 

As most of you are probably aware the fish and wildlife 
resources of the Province are administered by the Fish and Wildlife 
Division of the Department of Lands and Forests through 22 Forest 
District Offices distributed throughout the area. Each District 
office is staffed with a number of permanently employed fish and 
wildlife personnel. Eighteen biologists are presently employed on 
a full time basis to assist with the administration and management 
of the resource in 16 of the District offices. 

Prior to the amalgamation of the Dept. of Fisheries with 
the Dept. of Lands and Forests in 1946 and the subsequent appoint- 
ment of field biologists the management of fish and wildlife resour- 
ces in Ontario, was, for the most part, carried out with a limited 
amount of field investigation. The production and distribution of 
hatchery fish, for example, was based largely on public requisition 
and comparatively few biological investigations were ever made 
prior to the planting of hatchery fish. However, following the 
change in administration and the appointment of field biologists 
this procedure was altered and, whenever possible, biological surveys 
were introduced as a prerequisite for plantings and the management 
of most new waters. 

Initially, progress was slow due to the large numbers of 
waters to be investigated (It is estimated that there are some 
250,000 lakes in the Province) and the limited number of qualified 
staff. However, at the same time, the Department introduced an 
in-service training program, which included a reasonably comprehen- 
sive course in fish and wildlife management for all non-technical, 
permanent employees . Most of our Conservation Officer staff have 
completed this training and are now qualified to undertake certain 
sub technical investigations, including preliminary lake and stream 
surveys. The recruitment of this staff in the field of fisheries 
management has increased our force tenfold, with the result that 
considerable progress has been achieved in this field. 

Although considerable change has taken place in the field 
of fisheries management in Ontario during the past decade we are 
still comparatively "bogged down" insofar as general wise use of 
our hatchery product is concerned. The production and distribution 
of hatchery fish is still triggered by public demand which, unfor- 
tunately, is often found reluctant to accede to the recognized 
values of the hatchery products. Consequently, with the exception 



- 49 - 

of those waters which have been investigated and a management program 
established, many of our waters stocked are planted as a routine 
practice with little or no biological basis. The problem is grad- 
ually resolving itself as our survey programmes are completed but 
our fish stocking program is not as effective or as efficient as 
we would like it to be at the present time. 

One difficulty which we have encountered in our fish 
cultural operations in recent years has been the problem of regula- 
ting our production to meet the variable requirements from year to 
year. In an effort to alleviate this problem and facilitate the 
economy of the hatchery operation we have introduced the use of a 
five year plan for hatchery fish requirements. Each District 
submits a list of fish requirements for the respective areas for a 
five year period. The requirements listed for the first two years 
are fixed amounts, not subject to change, but the figures quoted 
for the following three years are estimated quantities. The plan is 
revised annually at which time the requirements for the second year 
hence is confirmed and an estimate for the fifth year is added. The 
plan has been in effect in Ontario for two years, and we have found 
the record to be extremely useful in planning our hatchery operations. 

Consistent with our program for improved utilization of 
hatchery stock the Department has recently undertaken two important 
changes in our fish cultural procedure. During the past year pellet 
feeding with a meat supplement was introduced at all of our rearing 
and pond stations following a three year period of practical, 
experimental use at two of our largest rearing stations. The compo- 
sition of the pellet used in Ontario is the same as that prescribed 
the the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service for use in the Central 
Region. 

Feeding on the basis of prescribed chart rates as publi- 
shed by the New York State Conservation Department in 1952, has 
also been introduced in Ontario hatcheries. This improvement in 
our feeding practices, coupled with the more balanced diet of pellet 
feed, has greatly increased the size of our hatchery fish and 
improved the economy of our hatchery operations. 

Although the current trend in fish culture is towards the 
production of large size fish as economically as possible, we are 
not fully convinced that the quality of the fish produced by present 
methods is the best suited for our fish management needs in Ontario. 
It is generally agreed that the so-called large, fat fish is satis- 
factory for management purposes on a short term "put and take basis". 
However, in Ontario this type of fisheries management at present is 
only applicable to certain areas in Southern Ontario and, to a 
limited extent, in the vicinity of the larger population centers in 
the northern part of the Province. The majority of our plantings 
are made with a view to more of the range type of management and, 
under such circumstances we are not certain that we are producing 
the best fish for our purpose. 



- 50 - 

In order to investigate this and other related problems 
associated with fish culture in the Province the Department is plan- 
ning the construction of a new experimental station to commence in 
195$ which will be located at Sault Ste. Marie* This station will 
be developed for a twofold purpose. It will be used primarily as 
a research center for the study of fish cultural problems, particu- 
larly those pertaining to fish nutrition, selective breeding, and 
in the development of new methods and equipment. 

The second function of the station will be to provide a 
in-service training center for Department staff. The courses 
provided will be supplementary to our Ranger School training program 
and will include a more specialized curriculum in general fishery 
biology, fish culture, fish nutrition and fish disease. 

With the establishment and use of the experimental station 
and the continuation of our intensified field investigations we 
hope to develop a fisheries program in the Province which will be 
capable of retaining the resource at the highest possible level for 
the future. 



- 51 - 
DEVELOPMENTS IN THE MECHANICS OF HATCHERY OPERATIONS* 

by 
R. A. Weir 

Civil Engineer, 
Ontario, Department of Lands and Forests 



Introduction 

The Division of Fish and Wildlife of the Ontario Department 
of Lands and Forests operates some 21 hatcheries and rearing stations 
for the production of both game and commercial fish at widespread 
locations in the province. 

The construction and maintenance of a system of hatcheries 
of this magnitude and extent requires full time study and planning. 
Older plants must be assessed with a view toward renovation or 
reconstruction, other plants must be improved from time to time to 
meet new conditions, new sites must be carefully investigated, and 
as well whenever time permits, an effort is made to improve our major 
design features and to introduce new and better materials and 
equipment. This latter aspect is one of considerable interest to 
those involved in the mechanics of fish culture, and a brief review 
of some of the improvements in Ontario hatcheries will indicate our 
present trend. 

Our most recently completed major construction project was 
the complete renovation of the Tarentorus trout rearing station at 
Sault Ste. Marie. At this station we have used reinforced plastic 
hatchery troughs, transite pipe, plastic valves, perforated sheet 
aluminum screens, and reinforced concrete raceways and circular ponds 
both of improved design. Some of these features have been used 
separately at other stations but here we have collected them all 
together to create quite a modern station. 

Chatsworth Trout Rearing Station 

Our best example of modern hatchery construction, however, 
will be our Chatsworth Trout Rearing Station. Scheduled to start 
in the spring of 195&* a major renovation project will be undertaken 
at this site over a period of two to three years. While time does 
not permit a detailed description of this project the following brief 
summary highlights the vital features which are to be included; 

1. An integrated masonry building which will accommodate all 

required service facilities as well as the basic hatching and 
first stage rearing sections. 



K Paper Presented at the Northeast Wildlife Conference, Montreal, 
January 4-7, 1953. 



■ • 



* 



- 52 - 

2. Reinforced plastic hatchery troughs. 

3. Extensive use of both asbestos-cement and plastic pipe. 

4. Plastic hatchery valves. 

5. Perforated sheet aluminum screens. 

6. Elimination of open head troughs in hatching and rearing sections. 

7. Extensive use of prismatic glass block panels for better day- 
light illumination. 

£. Fluorescent tube lighting for better night time illumination 
in hatching and rearing sections. 

While no specific mention has been made of details of out- 
door plant, this station will include a combination of earth ponds, 
modified concrete raceways, circular concrete ponds with certain 
improvements and an exhibition pond. The development at this site 
is sufficiently extensive to warrant the installation of a paging 
intercom system which will enable the manager in his office to 
communicate with his staff at any point within reason on the entire 
working plant . 

Asbestos-cement Pipe 

Among the rather modern materials which we have used 
previously and which will be used extensively at Chatsworth is 
asbestos-cement pipe. In the past water has been distributed through 
the hatcheries by means of open wood flumes, wood stave pipes, and 
later, open reinforced conrete flumes. Metallic pipes have in 
general been avoided except in the commercial hatcheries where pump- 
ing systems sometimes involve a real plumber's nightmare* 

Asbestos-cement pipe however offers an attractive combina- 
tion of ease of installation, leak proof assembly, very low head 
loss due to friction, reasonable flexibility at joints, retains full 
cross section of flow, it is non-toxic and has a long trouble free 
life expectancy and at quite a reasonable capital cost. It is a 
material that is admirably suited to hatchery use. 

Unfortunately however by reason of the very process of 
manufacture which gives this pipe its desirable qualities it is not 
feasible to fabricate an assortment of standard fittings for use 
with it. It is true that many fittings and in fact unusual parts 
are made from this material but this is all custom work at an app- 
ropriate price level. In hatchery work the lack of standard 
fittings is not a detriment however because under the low heads 
usually involved, bends, Tees and other arrangements can be created 
in the field simply by cutting the ends of the pipes to be connected 
to secure a reasonable match and then erecting a form about the joint 
and pouring a reinforced concmto block to form an effective seal. 
The installation of valves and dead ends can be made quite simply 
also. 



- 53 - 

Elimination of the Head Trough 

A combination of asbestos-cement pipe and plastic pipe is 
now proposed for use in hatchery buildings to supply water directly 
to hatching and rearing troughs, eliminating the head trough com- 
pletely. The basic detail of this arrangement consists of an 
asbestos-cement water main running in a covered floor gutter along 
the inlet end of the hatchery troughs, and at each unit of four 
hatching or two rearing troughs two vertical plastic pipes rise to 
a plastic header across the end of the group of troughs. The header 
is fitted with four plastic valves which discharge directly into 
the troughs. 

The plastic pipe used is a rigid, shock resistant type with 
a thick sidewall (Schedule BO I. P. size). While the plastic risers 
can be screwed directly into drilled and tapped holes in the sidewall 
of the asbestos-cement main, we prefer to use a single strap service 
clamp to ensure a trouble free connection. The header is assembled 
as a permanent unit using standard molded plastic fittings and short 
lengths of pipe with solvent weld connections. The plastic valves 
are screwed into the header to facilitate complete removal and/or 
replacement, should revisions or repairs ever be necessary. The 
whole assembly can rapidly be stripped down if required by loosening 
a compression coupling in each vertical riser. This will permit 
the header assembly to be lifted off and the risers removed from the 
main. Plastic plugs can then be inserted in the main if the bay is 
to be left out of service, or other piping arrangements are easily 
installed. 

This system of hatchery supply, by eliminating the head 
trough permits free movement of personnel completely around each 
unit of troughs, where formerly the aisle between units dead-ended 
at the head trough each time. The loss of the head trough as a 
constant head device is not serious because a constant head can still 
be maintained on the piping system by supplying it from a small 
forebay or supply well, the level of which is controlled by an 
overflow spillway. 

T he Plastic Valve 

For many years the standard method of controlling the flow 
of water from the head trough to the individual hatchery troughs 
has been by the use of molasses gates. These were used because 
they are simple, cheap and easily obtainable, but they have a number 
of disadvantages. Efforts made a few years ago to find a better 
stock item met with no success and so we decided to design our own 
valve. After producing a number of ridiculous gadgets we stumbled 
on an arrangement of plastic parts which resulted in the design of 
an all plastic valve suited to hatchery use. 

This valve is made from simple stock items which are 
readily available, although careful machining of the parts is 
required to produce satisfactory results. The body of the valve 
consists of a molded plastic "Tee if and the stem is a short length 
of plastic pipe. 



- 54 - 

The Tee used is of the solvent weld type because of the 
inside dimensions, and it is threaded internally in the shop. The 
plastic pipe used is of the rigid heavy-wall type as it must be 
threaded externall}?" by the shop to fit into the "Tee". The threaded 
plastic pipe or stern is sealed at both ends by welding on a plastic 
disc of suitable diameter and as well, a neoprene disc is bonded 
to the plastic disc at the inner end of the stem to form the effec- 
tive seal. A hole is drilled through the outer end of the stem at 
right angles to the principal center for the insertion of a piece of 
wooden dowel which serves as a 1! T" handle, and the valve is more 
or less complete. 

Actually one other item is required, and this is the 
fundamental feature of the valve. A short length of pipe is solvent 
welded into one end of the "T li and this piece serves a two fold 
purpose, 

(1) It forms the shank of the valve required for insertion into a 
trough wall or into a piping system, and as well, 

(2) The inside end of this shank must be cut true and smooth as it 
forms the seat against which the neoprene disc fits to effect 
complete closure of the valve. 

Certain details of the valve have been improved several times since 
the early models were produced, but the essential parts remain the 
same. While it is not claimed that this is the ultimate in hatchery 
valves, we have arrived at a valve which has proved very satisfactory 
in service and is a vast improvement over the metallic valves 
presently used. 

The interesting features of the production model are as 
follows: 

1. Non-metallic - non-toxic material is highly resistant to 
chemical attack. 

2« No springs - no maintenance problems. 

3. Positive Shut-off - no leakage in closed position. 

4. Positive Control - threaded stem gives close flow control. 

5. Simple Operation - gentle twisting motion no force required. 

6. Easy to Remove or Replace - threaded shank will not become 
eroded or corroded. 

7o Removeable stem - stem easily removed to dislodge debris. 

#• Long Life Expectancy - should outlast metallic valves* 

9. Low Capital Cost - little more than the cost of a molasses gate 
when fabricated in reasonable quantity. 



- 55 - 

10. Custom Made - can be modified according to need for each site. 

It should be noted finally also that this valve was 
designed solely for use as an outlet fixture for flow control and 
it cannot be used internally in a closed circuit piping system under 
pressure as there is no packing around the stem and leakage would 
result. 

Reinforced Plastic Hatchery Troughs 

Another interesting application of modern materials to 
hatchery use is the reinforced plastic hatchery troughs. We believe 
that the development of these troughs followed by the complete 
installation of fifty-eight of them in our Tarentorus Trout Rearing 
Station at Sault Ste. Marie several years ago, is the first such 
installation in a production hatchery anywhere. 

While we refer generally to reinforced plastics, of which 
there are many, we mean more specifically "fibre glass' 1 which to-day 
is used to describe a synthetic resin reinforced with glass fibres. 
Possibly we can best consider this type of construction by dealing 
with the various properties and aspects involved as follows s 

1. Weight - fibre glass troughs are much lighter in weight than the 
wooden or metal-lined wooden troughs, used in our hatcheries. 
They are lighter than most materials which we have considered, 
other than possibly aluminum, or other plastics depending upon 
actual design. This appears to offer a distinct advantage when 
combined with certain methods of water supply, drainage and 
supports in that the hatchery becomes more flexible, the troughs 
are easily rearranged or removed for storage or shipment else- 
where. 

2. Strength - While destructive tests have not been undertaken, we 
feel that fibre glass troughs can readily be fabricated having 
more than adequate strength for the intended purpose. The 
strength V.S. weight ratio is very high. 

3» Rigidity - Because of the high strength to weight ratio it is 
quite possible to make a fibre glass trough which has more than 
adequate strength but which is too flexible for satisfactory 
use. The troughs must therefore be designed to have the desired 
rigidity and this results in strengths well in excess of those 
required. The unsupported sidewalls of a long trough display 
this flexure readily and as well the bottom tends to dish between 
supports if the section is too thin or otherwise unstiffened. 
We feel that there is a structural advantage in having our 
troughs made in integrated units of four hatching or two rearing 
troughs as the common walls are quite rigid and this in turn 
stiffens the bottoms through cantilever action. Of course we 
specify rigid rather than flexible resins. 



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4. Moisture Absorption - Fibre glass troughs do absorb a very small 
percentage of moisture but this appears to have no effect on 
operation. We do, however, specify a cold water resistant, 
non-blushing, low moisture absorption resin. 

5fi Colour - Fibre glass troughs may be fabricated in any colour 
desired by including non-toxic pigments in the resin formula. 
This should reduce maintenance considerably as the need for 
scraping and recoating (as is done with our wooden and metal 
lined wooden troughs) is eliminated by the permanently embedded 
pigment and the durable surface. Troughs may be made having one 
colour on the inside surface and a different colour on the out- 
side surface if desired, in fact we use two different colours on 
the inside surface. 

6. Chemical Resistance - This property is dependant on the brand 
and type of resin used, in general however, the resins used are 
quite stable and chemically rather inert, which of course is 

of interest in the matter of the chemical treatment of disease 
and also sterilization. The greatest damage is apparently 
caused by some organic solvents and strong chlorine solutions. 
So far as is known, the strengths of solutions which would 
normally be used by this Department would have no effect. 

7. Water Tightness - Properly fabricated fibre glass troughs will 
not leak, as molded in one piece without joints, they are quite 
impervious. We recommend that the troughs be constructed con- 
taining at least part of the glass content in the form of mat 
however and preferably at the inside (water) surface. The 
exterior surface may be finished with glass cloth for appearance 
and strength, but it is more difficult to avoid pinholes and 
leakage in a trough constructed from a few layers of cloth alone. 

£• Surface Properties - Fibre glass troughs have very desirable 
surface properties in that if very smooth, polished molds are 
used it is possible to obtain a very even glossy surface which 
is easier to clean than most present troughs. It is desirable 
to use a "shell 45 coat of formulated resin on the mold initially 
to ensure that the first layer of glass does not appear at the 
immediate surface. 

9» Condensation - Because of the thin walls (roughly 3/l6 of an 

inch) and low insulating value condensation will probably gather 
on the outside surface, depending of course on water temperatures 
and atmospheric conditions. The obvious disadvantage here is 
that while we assure ourselves of a dry floor by eliminating 
leakage, dripping condensation cancels out this advantage. We 
are however considering various methods of combatting this 
problem if it becomes serious. 

10. Method of Construction - The troughs are constructed on an 

inverted male mold because the surface of the mold can be finished 
to give the desired inside surface characteristics to the trough. 
A male mold is a bit easier to construct and to use, although 
in the matter of stripping, a female mold would be simpler. 



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The mold, made of wood, metal, or even masonite is first 
coated with a mold-release agent to facilitate stripping the 
completed trough. The various layers of compounded resin and 
glass reinforcing are then applied, the resin being impregnated 
through the glass by one means or another. The most probable 
methods of fabrication would either be a simple hand lay-up where 
a number of operators apply the resin mix to each layer of glass 
and work it in with brushes or rollers, or a vacuum process 
where the resin is either poured, brushed or sprayed on the glass 
lay-up and a plastic sheet is drawn over the whole thing, sealed 
at the edges and then a vacuum applied which allows atmospheric 
pressure to act on the sheet forcing the resin into the glass. 

During polymerization of the resin a certain amount of 
shrinkage takes place, and this, together with the fact that the 
resin is painted on the mold in the first place means that the 
finished trough will be difficult to remove. It is found that 
a slight batter on the sidewalls is desirable to facilitate 
stripping, and the use of air pressure through holes in the form 
will be of considerable assistance. 

11. Service Life - As fibre glass construction is relatively new, 
and so far as we know, had not previously been applied to hat- 
chery troughs, it is quite difficult to anticipate the service- 
able life of a fibre glass hatchery trough. We have every 
reason to believe, however, that with reasonable care, these 
troughs should outlast the wooden troughs now in use* The 
surface can be scratched and marked accidentally or through 
misuse, but this will not cause leakage in a properly made 
trough. Extreme force or impact will cause a crazing of the 
resin, but this is not considered to be serious. An axe-blow 
could cause local damage, but this could be patched. 

12. Cost - Fibre glass hatchery troughs are not cheap, although 
they are not nearly as expensive as say stainless steel. From 
our investigations it would appear that fibre glass troughs will 
cost little more than well made aluminum troughs. It should be 
noted however that the cost of making the molds must be included 
and this cost can vary considerably. Therefore the production 

of a single molded trough, say for experimental use and appraisal 
would be excessively high in order to write off the mold cost. 

While it is desirable to have the troughs molded in 
integrated units as they would be grouped in the hatchery, it is 
difficult and more expensive to fabricate them in this manner. 
We achieved a saving in cost by using a single mold and then 
bonding the troughs together to form the desired units, using 
a specially compounded epoxy resin formula. 

In the overall picture it is quite unfair to compare costs 
based on initial cost alone. If the fibre glass trough is 
compared with a well made wooden trough of typical construction, 
over an anticipated life of say 20 or 30 years, the annual 
maintenance cost to caulk, repair, repaint externally and re- 
coat internally, including labour and material, makes the wooden 



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trough much more expensive and the difference in total cost is 
probably rather small. Whatever difference does remain looks 
like a good investment when we consider that a major annual 
housekeeping chore can be eliminated. 

Conclusion 

The hatchery of previous years was a rather primitive 
affair, it served its purpose well but not without long days and 
trying periods for those resourceful people who made it work. To-day 
we have an opportunity to combine the experience of many years of 
operation with the materials, equipment and techniques made available 
by modern science. If we can do this progressively with good 
judgement and reasonable skill our reward shall be a rich one. 






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